PENELITIAN/PENGEMBANGAN MODEL/SISTEM SURVEILANS DAMPAK KESEHATAN PERUBAHAN IKLIM

Athena Athena, D. Anwar M

PENELITIAN/PENGEMBANGAN MODEL/SISTEM SURVEILANS DAMPAK KESEHATAN PERUBAHAN IKLIM

Abstract


Abstract

Research/development of surveillance model of climate change impact on health has been conducted on 2011. The objective of the research was to obtain surveillance model/system on health impact of climate change suitable in Indonesia. The research was designed as operational research and divided into several stages started with situational analysis, review of surveillance program, and finally drafting the surveillance system model. Situational analysis and review of surveillance program were conducted by using rapid assessment method in 6 districts/cities from 6 provinces. These steps were performed to find out about how the recent surveillance system was. The drafting of surveillance system model comprised of identification of collected data/variables, data sources, frequency of data collection, data collection officers, data processing and analysis methods, and methods of disease data mapping and its information distribution, which was carried out through sectoral meetings, meetings with some programs in Ministry of Health, and experts meetings. The result of the research is a surveillance model/system of climate change impact on health, equipped with software for data processing and website application. The diseases data collected were weekly data of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia, and influenza like illness (ILI) diseases. These weekly data were obtained from EWARS system, which was developed by Directorate of Surveillance, Immunization, Quarantine, and Matra Health, Directorate General of Diseases Control and Environmental Health, Ministry of Health Indonesia. The climate data collected were temperature, rainfall, rain days, and relative humidity, in which their frequency of data collection was corresponding with diseases data. Data processing and analysis were performed automatically by using software which was designed specifically for presenting graphs/trends between diseases variables and climate variables in a particular period while GIS maps were displayed in the website. A surveillance model/system of the health impact of climate change has been developed. It is a system which process, analyze, and interpret data systematically and continuously, which also includes the distribution of information. The system is expected to provide information about how the condition of diseases in regard of climate change is.

Keywords : climate change, surveillance, rainfall, temperature, DHF, malaria, diarrhea, penumonida, influenza like illness/ ILI

Abstrak
Telah dilakukan penelitian dan pengembangan Model/Sistem Surveilans Dampak Perubahan Iklim tahun 2011. Tujuan penelitian/pengembangan ini adalah diperolehnya sistem surveilans untuk dampak kesehatan dari perubahan iklim yang cocok untuk Indonesia. Disain penelitian adalah riset operasional. Tahapan kegiatan dimulai dengan analisis situasi, review program surveilans, dan penyusunan draft model sistem surveilans. Analisis situasi dan review program surveilans dilakukan untuk mendapatkan gambaran bagaimana sistem surveilans yang berjalan selama ini, dilakukan dengan cara melakukan rapid assessment di 6 dinas kabupaten/kota 6 provinsi. Penyusunan draft model sistem surveilans yang meliputi identifikasi data/variabel yang perlu dikumpulkan, sumber dan frekuensi pengumpulan data, petugas pengumpul data, pengolahan dan analisis data, cara pemetaan data penyakit dan distribusi informasinya dilakukan dengan diskusi bersama lintas sektor, lintas program dan para pakar. Hasil penelitian berupa model/sistem surveilans dampak kesehatan perubahan iklim yang dilengkapi dengan software pengolahan data dan situs web. Jenis data penyakit yang dikumpulkan adalah DBD, malaria, diare, pneumonia, dan ILI yang merupakan pengembangan dari sistem EWARS (sistem kewaspadaan dini) yang dikembangkan oleh Direktorat Surveilans, Imunisasi, Karantina, dan Kesehatan Matra, Ditjen PP/PL, Kementerian Kesehatan. Data iklim adalah suhu, curah hujan, hari hujan, dan kelembaban berasal dari Pusat Data Base, Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika. Frekuensi pengumpulkan data penyakit maupun iklim adalah mingguan. Hasil lain berupa Software untuk pengolahan dan analisis data yang dapat menyajikan grafik/tren antara variabel penyakit dengan variabel iklim dalam kurun waktu tertentu serta peta GISnya yang dapat ditayangkan melalui situs web Surveilans Dampak Kesehatan Perubahan Iklim. Telah terbangun model/sistem surveilans dampak kesehatan perubahan iklim, yaitu suatu sistem pengolahan, analisis, dan interpretasi data secara sistematik dan terus menerus serta penyebaran informasinya, yang dapat memberikan informasi bagaimana kondisi penyakit dengan terjadinya perubahan iklim.

Kata Kunci: perubahan iklim, surveilans, curah bujan, suhu, malaria, diare, pneumonia, influenza like ilness/ILI


Keywords


climate change, surveillance, rainfall, temperature, DHF, malaria, diarrhea, penumonida, influenza like illness/ ILI

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Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
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