Ilham Akhsanu Ridlo, Rizqy Amelia Zein


Globally, during the last three decades, mental health has played significant role in regards to the discourse of global health policy. Since two decades ago, WHO has firmly defined health as a rounded state of condition where an individual reaches “…not merely absence of the illness, but also achieves physical, mental and social well-being.” WHO’s definition of health implies a significant impact on global health policy – all member of states should adhere their health policy to this definition. The Global Burden of Disease study carried out by WHO in 2012 that mapped out the burden of disease around the world revealed an appalling fact namely worsened mental health condition. Years lost due to disability (YLD) study mentioned that 6 out to 20 diseases that were most responsible in causing disability were mental illnesses. Therefore, this article aimed to describe the mental illness prevalence in global and national level by reviewing several mental illness epidemiological studies. Additionally, this article highlighted some of important challenges that should be considered by healthcare service providers and policymakers in tackling mental health issues, which are treatment gap and mental health stigma.


Mental Health Policy; Global and National Prevalence; Treatment Gap; Stigma


World Health Organization. Estimates for 2000–2012 [Internet]. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; 2012 [cited 2015 Oct 24]. Available from:

World Health Organisation (WHO). Mental Health Atlas. 2015.

Baxter AJ, Patton G, Scott KM, Degenhardt L, Whiteford H a. Global Epidemiology of Mental Disorders: What Are We Missing? PLoS One. 2013;8(6):1–9.

Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Chatterji S, Lee S, Ormel J, et al. The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2011;18(1):23–33.

Kessler RC, Üstün BB. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(2):93–117.

Wang PS, Angermeyer M, Borges G, Bruffaerts R, Tat Chiu W, DE Girolamo G, et al. Delay and failure in treatment seeking after first onset of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007;6(12):177–85.

Kessler RC, Angermeyer M, Anthony JC, DE Graaf R, Demyttenaere K, Gasquet I, et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007;6(3):168–76.

World Health Organisation. Mental Health: Facing the Challenges, building solutions. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2005. 195 p.

Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Phillips MR, et al. No health without mental health. Lancet. 2007;370(9590):859–77.

Tampubolon G, Hanandita W. Poverty and mental health in indonesia. Soc Sci Med [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2014;106:20–7. Available from:

Wittchen HU. Reliability and validity studies of the WHO--Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): a critical review. J Psychiatr Res. 1994;28(1):57–84.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2013. Jakarta; 2013.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2007. Lap Nas 2007. 2008;1–384.

Siswadi A. Pemerintah Ragukan Riset Penderita Skizofrenia [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Oct 24]. Available from:

Dirjen Bina Upaya Kesehatan. Strategi nasional sistem kesehatan jiwa. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2015.

Aditiasari D. Anggaran 2016: Pendidikan Rp424 T, Infrastruktur Rp313 T, Kesehatan Rp106 T [Internet]. DetikFinance. 2015 [cited 2015 Oct 24]. Available from:

Biro Perencanaan dan Anggaran Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Buku Saku Pagu Indikatif Kementerian Kesehatan Tahun 2014. Jakarta; 2014. p. 40.

Anggaran Kesehatan Indonesia. Anggaran Kesehatan Indonesia Salah Satu yang Terendah di Dunia [Internet]. Katadata News. 2015 [cited 2015 Oct 24]. Available from:

Kohn R, Saxena S, Levav I, Saraceno B. The treatment gap in mental health care 2004. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(03):858–66.

Setiawan GP. Rehabilitasi psikososial. Surabaya: Jaringan Rehabilitasi Psikososial Indonesia; 2015.

Marchira CR. Integrasi Kesehatan Jiwa Pada Pelayanan Primer Di Indonesia: Sebuah tantangan di masa sekarang. J Manaj Pelayanan Kesehat. 2011;14(03):120–6.

Corrigan PW. Mental Health Stigma as Social Attribution: Implications for Research Methods and Attitude Change. Clin Psychol Sci Pract [Internet]. 2006;7(1):48–67. Available from:

Viora E. Arah Kebijakan Rehabilitasi Psikososial pada ODGJ. Surabaya; 2015.

Sharac J, Mccrone P, Clement S, Thornicroft G. The economic impact of mental health stigma and discrimination: A systematic review. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc [Internet]. 2010;19(03):223–32. Available from:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
Main Indexing :

Visitor Number : View BPK Statistics
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.