Diversitas Genetik Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas di Berbagai Daerah Indonesia Berdasarkan Sekuen Gen ITS 2 DNA Ribosom

Widiarti Widiarti, Triwibowo Ambar Garjito, Umi Widyastuti

Abstract


Abstract

Malaria control is remain a challenge although various attempts have been conducted. One of the issues in controlling the vectors is the presence of species complex. The species complex is an example of genetic diversity. Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas reported as complex species in various countries, but has not been widely reported in Indonesia. In order to enhance malaria control, it is important to understand the vectors and its bioecology. The aim of the study were a). to identify An. balabacensis, Baisas suspected as species complex based on ribosomal DNA the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) gene sequences, b). to understand the genetic diversity of An. balabacensis, Baisas collected from endemic and non endemic regions distincted by geographical distance, c). to understand the genetic relationships (taxonomi distance) among An. balabacensis, Baisas from difference regions in Indonesia through reconstructing the phylogenetic trees. The results showed that An. balabacensis, Baisas in Indonesia is identified as sympatric and allopatrik complex species. There were differences which was far enough in the genetic relationships among An. balabacensis populations collected from Pusuk Lestari in the area of Meninting Health Center, West Lombok, NTB. This differences were identified as sympatric complex. In addition, base on the relationship among An. leucosphyrus group, An balabacensis, Baisas collected from Berjoko Nunukan Regency showed that the species quite far compare to An. balabacensis, Baisas originally from Central Java and Lombok NTB.

Keywords : An. balabacensis, genetic variation, the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2).

Abstrak

Penanggulangan malaria masih banyak menemui kendala walaupun berbagai upaya telah dilakukan. Salah satu kendala yang menyulitkan dalam pengendalian vektor adalah adanya spesies kompleks pada populasi nyamuk vektor. Spesies kompleks merupakan contoh diversitas genetik. Anopheles balabacensis dilaporkan sebagai spesies kompleks di berbagai negara, akan tetapi belum banyak dilaporkan di Indonesia. Penanggulangan malaria agar lebih efektif perlu adanya perbaikan dan pendekatan strategi dalam pengendalian vektor, termasuk sangat diperlukan adanya pemahaman terhadap spesies dan bioekologinya. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk : a). Mengidentifikasi secara molekuler nyamuk An. balabacensis yang dicurigai sebagai spesies kompleks berdasarkan sekuen ITS2 DNA ribosom, b). Mengetahui diversitas genetik nyamuk An. balabacensis dari daerah endemis dan non endemis dengan jarak geografis yang berbeda, c). Mengetahui kekerabatan genetik (jarak taksonomi) nyamuk An. balabacensis dari berbagai daerah di Indonesia dengan merekonstruksi pohon filogenetik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa An. balabacensis di Indonesia merupakan spesies kompleks simpatrik dan allopatrik. Ada perbedaan kekerabatan genetik
yang cukup jauh diantara populasi An. balabacensis di Pusuk Lestari, wilayah Puskesmas Meninting, Lombok Barat, NTB yang merupakan simpatrik kompleks. Berdasarkan hubungan
kekerabatan An. leucosphyrus group, An. balabacensis dari Berjoko, Kabupaten Nunukan menunjukkan kecenderungan terpisah cukup jauh dibandingkan dengan An. balabacensis
kompleks lainnya yang berasal dari Jawa Tengah dan Lombok, NTB.


Kata kunci : An. balabacensis, variasi genetik, ITS2 DNA ribosom


Keywords


An. balabacensis, genetic variation, the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2)

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