Sensitifitas dan Spesifisitas Pertanyaan Gejala Saluran Pernapasan dan Faktor risiko untuk Kejadian Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik (PPOK)

lusianawaty Tana, Delima Delima, Marice Sihombing, Sri Muljati Sri Muljati, Lannywati Ghani

Abstract


Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive non-reversible or partially reversible airflow obstruction in the airway. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of questions on respiratory symptoms and risky behavior for diagnosing COPD. Method. This study was a further analysis of Bogor Cohort Study on Non-Communicable Risk Factors 2011-2012 data. COPD was diagnosed by spirometry examination with bronchodilator. Twelve questions on COPD respiratory symptoms and two questions on rizky behavior were analyzed using crossed tabulation with 5 % significance level. Results. The sensitivity and specificity of several aggregate questions on respiratory symptom and COPD risk factors ranged from 12.5% to 94.3% and 2.2% to 94.4%. Aggregate of 7 questions on 6 respiratory symptoms and 1 smoking behavior with either one was answered “Yes” had the optimal sensitivity (68.1 %) and specificity (59.7 %). Those questions were coughing more than 1 month, excreting sputum almost every day, easily feeling fatigue or dyspnea while doing activity, dyspnea > 3 months that restricted daily activities, worsened fatigue/dyspnea, whizzing, and smoking behavior. Conclusion. Questions on respiratory symptoms were neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosing COPD.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sensitivity, specificity.

Abstrak

Penyakit paru obstruktif kronis (PPOK) adalah penyakit paru kronik, ditandai dengan adanya hambatan aliran udara di saluran pernapasan, dan bersifat progressif nonreversibel atau reversibel parsial. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sensitifitas dan spesifisitas pertanyaan gejala saluran pernapasan dan faktor risiko terhadap PPOK. Metode. Penelitian ini merupakan analisis lanjut sampel Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko PTM di Bogor tahun 2011-2012. Variabel yang dianalisis terdiri dari 12 pertanyaan gejala saluran pernapasan dan dua pertanyaan faktor risiko PPOK. Diagnosis PPOK berdasarkan hasil spirometri dengan bronchodilator. Analisis untuk mendapatkan nilai sensitifitas dan spesitifitas dilakukan tabulasi silang dengan tingkat kemaknaan 5%. Hasil. Dari kombinasi antara pertanyaan gejala saluran pernapasan dan faktor risiko terhadap PPOK, didapatkan range sensitifitas antara 12,5%-94,3% dan spesifitas 2,2%- 94,4%. Sensitifitas dan spesifisitas tertinggi adalah adanya salah satu dari 7 pertanyaan saluran pernapasan dan faktor risiko merokok terhadap PPOK yaitu dengan sensitifitas 68,1% dan dengan spesifisitas 59,7%. Tujuh pertanyaan tersebut adalah batuk setiap hari satu bulan lebih, mengeluarkan dahak/reak hampir setiap hari, cepat lelah/sesak napas bila beraktivitas, keluhan sesak napas >3 bulan yang membatasi aktivitas sehari-hari, cepat lelah/sesak napas semakin memberat, mengi, dan merokok. Kesimpulan. Pertanyaan gejala saluran pernapasan kurang sensitif dan kurang spesifik untuk mendiagnosis PPOK.

Kata kunci: penyakit paru obstruksi kronis, sensitifitas, spesifisitas.


Keywords


penyakit; paru; obstruksi; kronis; sensitifitas; spesifisitas.

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