Faktor Risiko Dominan Penyakit Jantung Koroner di Indonesia

Lannywati Ghani, Made Dewi Susilawati, Harli Novriani

Abstract


Abstract

Coronary heart disease is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity with great socio-economic impact like stroke. Coronary heart disease is preventable by early detection and risk factors control. This study aimed to identify dominant risk factors of coronary heart disease in Indonesia using National Basic Health Survey 2013 data. Data were analysed using SPSS 16 with complex sample. A total of 722.329 respondent age ≥15 years old, consisting of 347.823 male and 374.506 female were analyzed. Prevalence of coronary heart disease was 1.5 % (95% CI 1.4–1.5). Several factors were identified as risk factors of coronary heart disease such as hypertension, mental disorder, diabetes mellitus, stroke, age ≥ 40 years old, smoking, female, low level of education, central obesity, and low level of social economic status with adjusted odds ratio range from 1.30 to 10.09. The dominant risk factors were hypertension, mental disorder, and diabetes mellitus. Promotion of healthy lifestyle and early detection since early age need to be enhanced to minimize the risk factors as well as coronary heart disease.

Key words : coronary heart disease, risk factor, basic health survey 2013.

Abstrak

Penyakit Jantung Koroner (PJK) masih merupakan penyebab kematian dan kesakitan utama yang berdampak secara sosioekonomi seperti juga stroke. Penyakit ini dapat dicegah dengan deteksi dini dan pengendalian faktor risiko. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan faktor risiko dominan penderita jantung koroner di Indonesia dengan menggunakan data sekunder dari Survei Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia tahun 2013. Analisis data menggunakan SPSS 16 dengan complex sample. Dari 722.329 responden usia ≥ 15 tahun didapat prevalensi penyakit jantung koroner sebesar 1,5 % (95 % CI 1,4–1,5). Hipertensi, gangguan mental emosional, diabetes melitus, stroke, usia ≥ 40 tahun, kebiasaan merokok, jenis kelamin perempuan, tingkat pendidikan rendah, obesitas sentral, dan status sosial ekonomi rendah merupakan faktor risiko PJK dengan rasio odd berkisar dari 1,30 hingga 10,09. Faktor risiko dominan penyakit jantung koroner adalah hipertensi, gangguan mental emosional, dan diabetes melitus. Upaya promotif dan deteksi dini faktor risiko sejak usia dini perlu ditingkatkan untuk memperkecil kejadian faktor risiko maupun penyakit jantung koroner.

Kata kunci : penyakit jantung koroner, faktor risiko, Riskesdas 2013.


Keywords


coronary heart disease, risk factor, basic health survey 2013

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