Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Hipertensi pada Penduduk Indonesia yang Menderita Diabetes Melitus (Data Riskesdas 2013)

Marice Sihombing

Abstract


Abstract

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension is increasing worldwide due to lifestyle changes. Both of them increase the risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases. This study aimed to assess the association of several factors with hypertension among DM people based on Basic Health Research 2013 data. DM respondents was selected based on having been diagnosed as DM by medical doctors or was taking DM medication, or blood glucose examination confirmed DM according to Perkeni consensus 2011. Hypertension was defined based on having diagnosed by health providers or was taking antihypertension medication or blood pressure examination showing systolic pressure of ≥140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure of ≥90 mmHg. There were 5253 respondents with DM, consisted of 1966 males (37.4%), and 3287 females (62.6%). The proportion of hypertension was 51.8% (95%CI: 49.4-54.2), 45.8% males, and 55.4% females with p≥0.05. The risk of hypertension increased among respondents aged 45 years and over by 2.63 times, mental emotional disorders (2.19 times), central obesity (1.75 times), hypercholesterolemia (1.68 times), general obesity (1.57 times), unemployed (1.39 times), low education (1.30 times) with p<0.05. Several of those factors were preventable and controllable. Hence, health promotion and disease prevention should be encouraged.

Key word: diabetes, hypertension, risk factor, basic health research 2013

Abstrak

Prevalensi Diabetes Melitus (DM) dan hipertensi terus meningkat di dunia karena perubahan gaya hidup. Keduanya meningkatkan risiko penyakit kardiovakuler dan penyakit ginjal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan faktor yang berhubungan dengan hipertensi pada penduduk DM di Indonesia berdasarkan data Riskesdas 2013. Desain penelitian adalah cross sectional. Responden telah didiagnosis DM oleh dokter atau sedang minum obat DM dari hasil wawancara atau kadar glukosa darah memenuhi kriteria DM menurut konsensus Perkeni 2011. Responden dinyatakan hipertensi bila pernah didiagnosis oleh tenaga kesehatan atau sedang minum obat anti hipertensi dari hasil wawancara atau pengukuran tekanan darah rata-rata sistolik ≥140 mmHg, dan atau diastolik ≥90 mmHg. Jumlah penduduk DM sebanyak 5253 orang yang terdiri atas 1966 orang (37,4%) laki laki dan 3287 orang (62,6%) perempuan. Proporsi hipertensi sebesar 51,8% (95%CI: 49,4-54,2), laki laki (45,8%), perempuan (55,4%) dengan p≥0,05. Risiko hipertensi meningkat pada kelompok umur ≥ 45 tahun sebesar 2,63 kali, gangguan mental emosional 2,19 kali, obesitas sentral 1,75 kali, kolesterol total 1,68 kali, obesitas umum 1,57 kali, tidak bekerja 1,39 kali, pendidikan rendah 1,30 kali dengan p <0,05. Beberapa faktor tersebut dapat dikendalikan dan dikontrol. Upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian perlu digiatkan.

Kata kunci: diabetes, hipertensi, faktor risiko, Riskesdas 2013


Keywords


diabetes, hipertensi, risiko, Riskesdas 2013

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