Stigma terhadap Orang dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) sebagai Hambatan Pencarian Pengobatan: Studi Kasus pada Pecandu Narkoba Suntik di Jakarta

Irfan Ardani, Sri Handayani

Abstract


Abstract
The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in Indonesia has been increasing every year. One of
the main causes of HIV cases was the use of non sterile needles among injecting drug users. Many people
still considered HIV/AIDS as a stigmatized disease. The people tend to hide their HIV status to their
family, friends, other people and health providers. PLWH and their family were vulnerable from stigma
and discrimination; therefore, they had barriers of HIV/AIDS to receive treatments. A qualitative research
has been conducted in Jakarta with in-depth interview and observation as methods for data collection.
The informants have been selected purposively, which are PLWH among injecting drug users (IDU’s) and
former IDU’s. Stigmatization among PLWH from IDU’s group consisted of self stigmatization and social
stigmatization. Self stigmatization aroused from the IDU’s fearness of rejection from other people and the
result of external stigma’s internalization. Social stigmatization included discrimination, intimidation and
indifferent behavior toward PLWH from IDU’s group. As a conclusion, PLWH from IDU’s group tended
not seeking help, delayed or ended their HIV/AIDS treatment because they had been stigmatized. Selfefficacy
of PLWH from IDU’s group also limited as a result of stigmatization.
Key words: stigma, HIV/AIDS, drug user, treatment

 

Abstrak
Jumlah orang dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) di Indonesia mengalami kenaikan setiap tahunnya. Salah
satu penyebab penularan HIV/AIDS adalah penggunaan jarum suntik tidak steril pada pecandu narkoba
suntik (penasun). HIV dan AIDS masih dianggap penyakit yang tabu dibicarakan secara terbuka kepada
orang tua, masyarakat dan bahkan pelayanan kesehatan. Hal ini membuat ODHA dan keluarganya rentan
terhadap stigma dan diskriminasi yang berakibat pada hambatan memperoleh perawatan dan pengobatan.
Penelitian dilakukan di Jakarta dengan metode wawancara dan observasi pada komunitas penasun.
Sampel diambil secara purposif dengan kriteria penasun atau mantan penasun yang sudah terinfeksi HIV.
Stigma memiliki dua jenis yaitu stigma yang berasal dari dalam diri sendiri dan yang berasal dari luar
diri. Stigma dari dalam muncul dari rasa ketakutan dalam diri ODHA dan juga hasil dari internalisasi
stigma dari luar. Stigma dari luar diterima ODHA penasun dalam bentuk diskriminasi, intimidasi dan
pembiaran. Sebagai kesimpulan ODHA penasun yang merasa terstigma akan mengurangi kemungkinan
untuk mencari bantuan, menunda pengobatan atau memilih mengakhiri pengobatan. Kepercayaan diri
ODHA penasun untuk mengatasi masalah adiksi mereka juga akan berkurang akibat stigma yang mereka
dapat.
Kata kunci: stigma, HIV/AIDS, pecandu, pengobatan

 


Keywords


stigma, HIV/AIDS, pecandu, pengobatan

References


Kesehatan K. Laporan Situasi Perkembangan HIV & AIDS di Indonesia Tahun 2015. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Penyakit, 2016.

Nasional BN. Laporan Akhir Survei Nasional Perkembangan Penyalahgunaan Narkoba. Jakarta: Badan Narkotika Nasional Republik Indonesia. 2014.

Avert.org. Stigma, Discrimination and HIV 2016 [updated 16 Desember 2016; cited 2016 27 Desember 2016]. Available from: http://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-issues/stigma-discrimination.

Mason T. Stigma and Social Exclusion in Healthcare: Psychology Press; 2001.

Goffman E. Stigma. Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon and Shuster. Inc; 1963.

Phillips LA. Stigma and Substance Use Disorders: Research, Implications, and PotentialL Solutions. Journal of Drug Addiction, Education, and Eradication. 2011;7(2):91.

Amin M, MacLachlan M, Mannan H, Tayeb SE, Khatim AE, Swartz L, et al. EquiFrame: A framework for analysis of the inclusion of human rights and vulnerable groups in health policies. Health and Human Rights. 2011;13(2):82-101.

Burkholder GJ, Harlow LL, Washkwich JL. Social Stigma, HIV/AIDS Knowledge, and Sexual Risk1. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research. 1999;4(1):27-44.

Sarikusuma H, Hasanah N, Herani I. Konsep diri orang dengan HIV dan AIDS (ODHA) yang menerima label negatif dan diskriminasi dari lingkungan sosial. Psikologia: Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Psikologi. 2012;7(1).

Li X, Wang H, He G, Fennie K, Williams AB. Shadow on my heart: a culturally grounded concept of HIV stigma among Chinese injection drug users. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2012;23(1):52-62.

Thi MDA, Brickley DB, Vinh DTN, Colby DJ, Sohn AH, Trung NQ, et al. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. AIDS and Behavior. 2008;12(1):63-70.

Parker R, Aggleton P. HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action. Social science & medicine. 2003;57(1):13-24.

Deacon H, Stephney I. HIV/AIDS, Stigma and Children: A Literature Review: HSRC press Cape Town; 2007.

Bogart LM, Cowgill BO, Kennedy D, Ryan G, Murphy DA, Elijah J, et al. HIV-Related Stigma Among People With HIV and Their Families: A Qualitative Analysis. AIDS and Behavior. 2008;12(2):244-54.

Ford K, Wirawan DN, Sumantera GM, Sawitri AAS, Stahre M. Voluntary HIV Testing, Disclosure, and Stigma Among Injection Drug Users in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS Education and prevention. 2004;16(6):487-98.

Steward WT, Herek GM, Ramakrishna J, Bharat S, Chandy S, Wrubel J, et al. HIV-Related Stigma: Adapting a Theoretical Framework for Use in India. Social science & medicine. 2008;67(8):1225-35.

Vogel DL, Wade NG. Stigma and Help-Seeking. The Psychologist. 2009.

Butt L, Morin J, Numbery G, Peyon I, Goo A. Stigma and HIV/AIDS in Highlands Papua. Pusat Studi Kependudukan–Universitas Cenderawasih and University of Victoria Canada: UNCEN UoV. 2010.

Shaluhiyah Z, Musthofa SB, Widjanarko B. Stigma Masyarakat Terhadap Orang Dengan HIV/AIDS. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional. 2015;9(4):333-9.

Vogel DL, Wade NG, Haake S. Measuring The Self-Stigma Associated With Seeking Psychological Help. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2006;53(3):325.

O’Laughlin KN, Wyatt MA, Kaaya S, Bangsberg DR, Ware NC. How Treatment Partners Help: Social Analysis of an African Adherence Support Intervention. AIDS and Behavior. 2012;16(5):1308-15.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
Main Indexing :

More...
Visitor Number : View BPK Statistics
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.