VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA

Hoedojo Hoedojo

VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA

Abstract


Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands.

Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographi­cally as follows:

Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus

Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and

An.sinensis

Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and

hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti,

An.koliensis and An.punctulatus

Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae

don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and

clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus.

 

The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted) by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java.

Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows :

1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general.

This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT.

2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java.

This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT.

3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java.

This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT.

Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas the rural type is transmitted mosdy by Anopheles spp., such as An.aconitus and An.punctulatus complex. The periodic species of Mansonia transmit the subperiodic noctural B.malayi. B.timori which is distributed in the Eastern part of Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara), is transmitted by An.barbirostris.

Some filariasis vectors such as An.aconitus and the An.puctulatus complex may function both as filariasis vector and malaria vector as well.

An.barbirostris with is confirmed as a vector of malaria in South Sulawesi, a vector of periodic nocturnal malayan filariasis in Central Sulawesi and as the only vector of timorian filariasis in Timor and Flores, has to be studied further as it has two types of behaviouristic appearance, namely :

1. Anbarbirostris in Java

This mosquito is an anthropozophilic species, feeds indoors and outdoors, and rest outdoors. None is found to transmit mosquitoborne disease.

2. Anbarbirostris in Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara (outside Java).

This mosquito is a zooanthropophilic form, endo and exophagic, and rests outdoors. It is confirmed as a vector of malaria, periodic noctural malayan filariasis and the only vector of timorian filariasis.

 


Keywords


Malaria; Filariasis

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Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
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