Penyimpangan Pola Prevalensi Hipertensi di Indonesia – Penyusulan oleh Perempuan pada Usia 28 Tahun: Masukan untuk Perbaikan Pelayanan Kesehatan

Siti Isfandari


This policy paper intends to provide inputs for community health program development on high
blood pressure (HBP) prevention and treatment improvement. The latest two consecutive National
Health Surveys in 2010 and 2013 revealed deviant pattern of HBP among pre menopause females.
Earlier take-over of HBP prevalence is observed between females on males. Exploration on HBP
risk by age and sex was performed. The findings showed higher prevalence of HBP risk among
females. Age, obesity, emotional distress, and contraceptive use contribute to HBP occurrence.
Result of analysis was inconclusive to identify precise risk of earlier take over of high blood pressure.
It could probably due to hormonal contraceptive use and higher prevalence of risk among females.
Since there was already higher health service utilization, it is recommended that the existing non
communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and monitoring program is expanded to provide service
for young females. Among the service provided are motivation for healthy diet, physical activity,
mental health service and family planning.
Key words: NCD, hypertension, gender, health service, Indonesia

Artikel kebijakan ini bertujuan memberi masukan perbaikan program pencegahan dan penanganan
hipertensi di puskesmas dan masyarakat. Riskesdas 2010 dan 2013 menunjukkan fenomena
yang berbeda dengan negara lain. Prevalensi hipertensi perempuan pre menopause lebih tinggi
dibandingkan lelaki. Tujuan analisa untuk melakukan eksplorasi faktor risiko yang menyebabkan
terjadinya penyusulan prevalensi hipertensi pada usia relatif muda. Usia, indeks massa tubuh,
distress emosional , jenis kelamin dan penggunaan kontrasepsi merupakan faktor kontributor yang
dianalisa. Hasil menunjukkan usia merupakanmerupakan kontributor tertinggi terjadinya hipertensi.
Prevalensi hipertensi perempuan non pengguna kontrasepsi tidak berbeda dengan lelaki, sedangkan
pengguna kontrasepsi hormonal memiliki risiko lebih tinggi terhadap hipertensi dibanding pengguna
kontrasepsi non hormonal. Hasil analisa belum dapat secara konklusif memperoleh faktor risiko
yang menyebabkan terjadinya penyusulan dini hipertensi perempuan. Namun diduga terkait dengan
penggunaan kontrasepsi hormonal dan lebih tingginya prevalensi faktor risiko hipertensi.
Kata kunci : PTM, jender, pelayanan kesehatan, hipertensi, Indonesia



WHO . Global status report on non communicable

disease 2014. M. S. Switzerland:WHO

Lewington. "Age specific relevance of usual

blood pressure to vascular mortality : a meta

analysis of Individual data for one million

adults in 61 prospective studies." The Lancet.

; 360 :11

JNC7. prevention, detection, evaluation and

treatment of high blood pressure, National

Institute of Health. 2004.

Prochaska, J. J. "A Review of Multiple Health

Behavior Change Interventions for Primary

Prevention." American Journal of Lifestyle

Medicine. 2011; 5(3): 14

Fan.A.Z, e. a. "Psychological distress associated

with self-reported high blood pressure and

high blood cholesterol in U.S. adults, 2007."

Int J Public Health. 2009;54(supplement): 6.

Coryell.VT. The role of psychological distress,

eating styles, dietary intake, and gender in

cardiometabolic risk. Psychology. 2011.

Miami, Miami. Doctor of Phylosophy: 200.

Ornish.D. Love and Connection (the Touchy-

Feely Stuff). Ward.T, on

Medscape. 2016

Hamer.M. psychological risk factors in the

development of hypertension. Psychological

factors and cardiovascular disorders. New

York: Nova science publishers.Inc;2009

NIHRD. Laporan Riskesdas 2013.

Jakarta:National Institute of Health Research

& Development, MOH Indonesia;2013 "Anxiety and depression

lowers blood pressure:22-year follow-up of

the population based HUNT study, Norway."

BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 8.

Delgado.L.C, e. a. "Proneness to worry is

negatively associated with blood pressure

and baroreflex sensitivity: Further evidence

of the blood pressure emotional dampening

hypothesis." Biological Psychology. 2014; 96:

Sandberg. "sex differences in primary

hypertension." Biology of sex differences.

; 3(7): 21.

A user’s guide to the self report questionnaire.

Geneve: Division of Mental Health WHO;

A user’s guide to the self report

questionnaire. Geneve: Division of Mental

Health WHO; 1994. "Lifetime prevalence and

age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders

in the World Health Organization’s World

Mental Health Survey Initiative." World

Psychiatry. 2007; 6: 9.

Chibber, K. S., "A common pathway

toward women’s health." Global Public

Health. 2008; 3(1): 13.

Everett.B. "Gender Differences in

Hypertension and Hypertension Awareness

Among Young Adults." Biodemography and

Social Biology. 2015; 61: 17. "Gender Differences in

Hypertension: Myths and Reality." Curr

Hypertens Rep. 2013; 15: 10.

Maranon.R. "Sex and gender differences in

control of blood pressure." Clinical Science.

; 125: 8.

Rachmawati.R, Permanasari.Y. “Higher body

mass index may increase prehypertension

risk”. HSJI. 2011; 2: 1

Kusumawardani, et al. “Behavior risk factors

and lipid profiles of diabetes mellitus with

hypertension among adult population in Indonesia” . HSJI. 2016; 7:2

Idaiani. S & Wahyuni, HS. ”Association

Between Mental Emotional Disorders and

Hypertension among Indonesian”. Media

Litbangkes. 2016; 26 : 3

Isfandari, et al. “Kontribusi Penggunaan

Kontrasepsi Hormonal terhadap Perbedaan

Prevalensi Hipertensi Perempuan dan Lelaki

di Indonesia : Perspektif Jender Riskesdas

”. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 2016;

: (1)

Isfandari . “Penggunaan kontrasepsi hormonal

dan distress emosional sebagai kontributor

hipertensi perempuan Indonesia: tinjauan

perspektif jender”. Buletin Penelitian

Kesehatan. 2015; 43: (1)

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
Main Indexing :

Visitor Number : View BPK Statistics
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.