Faktor Risiko Penyakit Ginjal Kronik : Studi Kasus Kontrol di Empat Rumah Sakit di Jakarta Tahun 2014

Delima Delima, Emiliana Tjitra

Abstract


Abstract
A case control study was conducted in four government hospitals in Jakarta according to Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) 2012 criteria, in the last 10 years. Control subjects
were diagnosed as not CKD based on estimating glomerulus filtration rate (e-GFR) of ≥60ml /
minute/1.73m2 and normal urinalysis test. Data were collected by interviewing with subjects using
structured questionnaires. Laboratory test results were extracted from the medical records or
retested laboratory results of serum creatinine, HbA1c, and urinalysis at screening and enrollment
time. A total of 429 eligible subjects in each group were analysed by logistic regression. Age, family
history of CKD, plain water consumption ≤2000ml/day, carbonated drink consumption, energy drink
consumption, history of kidney diseases, kidney stone, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus increased
risk of CKD with adjusted odds ratio range from 1.8 to 25.8. Consumption of coffee, tea, chocolate,
alcohol drinks, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), traditional herbal for musculoskeletal
disorder or obesity, smoking, and less quality of drinking water were not significantly associated
with CKD. It concluded that risk factors of CKD were everyday consumption of carbonated drink
and energy drink.
Key words: chronic kidney disease, risk factor, case control, hospital

 

Abstrak
Penelitian kasus-kontrol penyakit ginjal kronik (PGK) telah dilakukan di empat rumah sakit (RS)
pemerintah di DKI Jakarta mengikuti kriteria Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO)
2012, dan paling lama sudah sakit dalam 10 tahun terakhir. Subyek kontrol adalah pasien yang tidak
memenuhi kriteria PGK menurut penilaian dokter dan atau hasil estimasi laju filtrasi glomerulus
(e-LFG) ≥60ml/menit/1,73m2 dengan hasil urinalisis normal. Data faktor risiko dikumpulkan dengan
wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Data laboratorium dicatat dari rekam medik atau
hasil pemeriksaan ulang kadar kreatinin serum, HbA1c, dan urinalisis rutin dari subyek. Sejumlah
429 subyek memenuhi kriteria untuk setiap kelompok. Hasil analisis regresi logistik kondisional menunjukkan umur lanjut, riwayat keluarga dengan PGK, konsumsi air minum ≤ 2000 ml/hari,
konsumsi minuman bersoda, minuman berenergi, pernah didiagnosis gangguan glomerulus
atau tubulo-intersisial ginjal, batu ginjal, hipertensi, dan diabetes mellitus meningkatkan risiko
PGK dengan kisaran adjusted OR 1,8 hingga 25,8. Konsumsi kopi, teh, coklat, minuman
beralkohol, obat antiinflamasi non steroid (NSAID), jamu pegal linu, jamu pelangsing,
merokok, dan kualitas air minum yang kurang baik tidak berhubungan secara bermakna dengan
PGK. Disimpulkan bahwa faktor risiko paling dominan adalah sering mengonsumsi minuman
berenergi bersamaan minuman bersoda.
Kata kunci: penyakit ginjal kronik, faktor risiko, kasus kontrol, Jakarta


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