Kajian Kebijakan dan Penanggulangan Masalah Gizi Stunting di Indonesia

Ni Ketut Aryastami

Abstract


Abstract

Stunting prevalence in Indonesia has been almost stagnant at 37% from year 2007 to 2013. With the cutoff point greater than 20%, WHO classified Indonesia has a public health problem. The purpose of this review is to analyze policy related problems and gaps that could be filled as a policy option. Policy analysis was conducted through searching and analyzing legal documents, policy as well as programs following the policy formulation. Finally, round table discussion inviting experts was conducted to construct a recommendation. Stunting prevalence has barely reducing within the last ten year which was only 4% from 1992 to 2013, though programs and budget allocation has been made, even scaling up nutrition is mentioned in Presidential Regulation no.42/2013 through National Movement of First Thousand Days of Life. Stunting has a long term effect that bring about non communicable diseases causing economic burden, although stunting can be corrected. Serious integrated effort should be taken into account at all levels as a policy recommendation. Mothers or future brides should be given information of healthy pregnancy and nutrition. Exclusive breast feeding should be done mandatory to healthy delivery mothers. In addition, proper complementary feeding should be well understood by mothers and health workers.

Keywords: stunting, policy analysis, Indonesia

Abstrak

Prevalensi stunting di Indonesia memiliki angka cukup stagnan dari tahun 2007 hingga 2013. WHO menetapkan batasan masalah gizi tidak lebih dari 20%, sehingga dengan demikian Indonesia termasuk dalam negara yang memiliki masalah kesehatan masyarakat. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kebijakan dan kesenjangan yang dapat dipecahkan melalui opsi kebijakan melalui analisis dokumen legal dan literatur lainnya serta program yang telah dikembangkan. Kemudian dilakukan forum diskusi dengan melibatkan pakar dalam menyusun hasil sebagai opsi kebijakan. Penurunan angka stunting hanya mencapai 4% antara tahun 1992 hingga 2013. Perpres no. 42/2013 telah menetapkan Gerakan Nasional Seribu Hari Pertama Kehidupan dalam upaya meningkatkan status gizi balita yang diikuti oleh pengembangan program termasuk anggarannya. Stunting memiliki risiko panjang yakni PTM pada usia dewasa, walaupun masih dapat dikoreksi pada usia dini. Upaya penurunan masalah gizi harus ditangani secara lintas sektoral di semua lini. Ibu dan calon pengantin harus dibekali dengan pengetahuan cukup tentang gizi dan kehamilan, ASI Eksklusif pada ibu bersalin yang sehat. Selanjutnya MPASI harus dipahami oleh para ibu dan tenaga kesehatan secara optimal.

Kata kunci: stunting, policy analysis, Indonesia


Keywords


stunting, policy analysis, Indonesia

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