Gambaran Disabilitas pada Penduduk dengan Diabetes Mellitus di Indonesia , Riskesdas 2013

Siti Isfandari, laurentia mihardja



Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of degenerative diseases with high burden due to its impact on mortality and disability. There is yet information on the prevalence of DM related disability in Indonesian community. Analysis was performed to depict disability among “healthy’ and DM in population. The sample was derived from Riskesdas 2013 comprising 430,304 respondents aged 35 or higher. The results showed that DM prevalence was 3.6%. Females who lived in urban had higher prevalence. The prevalence of disability among the “healthy” was 13.8% while among DM was 44.1%. DM related disability started to rise among those aged 55 or higher. The 75 or higher age group had the highest prevalence (76.2%). Cognitive and mobility limitation were the highest disability among the diabetic. Those with DM had 4,89 times (95% CI 4,74 – 5,07) higher risk of disability compared with the ‘healthy group’. Meanwhile respondents with DM and stroke had the highest disability prevalence compared with other groups. The increasing trend of DM prevalence in Indonesia will be accompanied by disabilities. This will become burden for the sufferers, their family and society. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen DM prevention, promotion program, and improve DM related disability management.

Key words : DM, disability, Riskesdas 2013.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) merupakan salah satu penyakit degeneratif dengan beban penyakit cukup tinggi karena disabilitas dan kematian yang diakibatkannya. Belum ada informasi mengenai prevalensi disabilitas terkait DM di masyarakat Indonesia. Analisis data dilakukan untuk mendapatkan gambaran disabilitas pada penduduk “Sehat” dan “DM” di Indonesia. Sampel yang dianalisis berasal dari data Riskesdas 2013 sejumlah 430.304 responden usia minimal 35 tahun. Hasil analisis menunjukkan prevalensi DM sebesar 3,6% pada usia minimal 35 tahun. Prevalensi pada perempuan lebih tinggi dari laki-laki, dan prevalensi DM lebih tinggi di wilayah perkotaan dibanding perdesaan. Disabilitas pada kelompok “Sehat” sebesar 13,8% dan pada DM sebesar 44,1%. DM mulai meningkat pada usia 55 tahun dan tertinggi pada usia 75 tahun ke atas (76,2%).Keterbatasan kognisi dan mobilitas merupakan keterbatasan tertinggi yang dialami penderita diabetes (diabetisi) . Kelompok DM berisiko gangguan keterbatasan 4,89 x (95% CI 4,74 – 5,07) dibanding kelompok “Sehat”. Disabilitas pada kelompok DM dengan stroke tertinggi dibanding kelompok lain. Dengan semakin meningkatnya prevalensi DM di Indonesia akansemakin meningkat disabilitas yang menjadi beban bagi si penderita, keluarga dan masyarakat. Diharapkan pemegang program meningkatkan penyuluhan dan kegiatan pencegahan DM, memperlambat terjadinya disabilitas pada DM dan meningkatkan penanganan disabilitas.

Kata kunci: diabetes mellitus, disabilitas, riskesdas 2013


DM, disability, Riskesdas 2013.


Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. January 2010; vol 87 (1), p 4–14 .

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Laporan Riskesdas 2007. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan; 2008.

Mihardja L, Delima, Siswoyo H, Ghani L, Soegondo S. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucoce tolerance in Indonesia. Acta Med Indones 2009 Oct; 41(4): 169 – 74.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Pokok-Pokok Hasil Riskesdas Indonesia tahun 2013. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Balitbangkes; 2014.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Diabetes and disability: impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions and comorbidities. Diabetes series 2013 no. 20. Cat. no. CVD 63. Canberra: AIHW.

The World Report on Disability, Geneva, World Health Organization and World Bank, 2011. Last consultation 11/07/2011 []

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Pokok-Pokok Hasil Riskesdas Indonesia tahun 2013. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Balitbangkes; 2014.

Ghani L, Mihardja LK, Delima. Dominant Risk Factors of Stroke In Indonesia. Bulletin of Health Research. 2016; 44 (1): 49-53.

Andrews G. Et al. Normative Data For The 12 Item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Plos One. December 2009; Vol 4 Issue 12 E 8343

Isfandari S. Pendekatan jender terhadap perbedaan status kesehatan perempuan dan lelaki, riskesdas 2013 (Gender approach to the difference in the health status of women and men, riskesdas 2013). Bulletin penelitian sistem kesehatan. 2016; vol 19 no 1

Bruce DG, et al . 2005. Longitudinal predictors of reduced mobility and physical disability in patients with type 2 diabetes : the fremantle study. Diabetes care. 2005; 28; 2441 – 2447.

Carmo JF, Morelato LR, Pinto HP, Oliveira ERA. Disability after stroke: a systematic review. Fisioter. mov. vol.28 no.2 Curitiba Apr./June 2015.

Songer TJ. Disability in Diabetes. Chapter 12,ssl&ei=bIgGVKTJNMbhuQT8n4CICw#q=DM+and+disability, access 3 Sept 2014

Norbert S, Danit N, Genevieve G, Ashok M, Wang JL. Association between Neighborhodd Level Deprivation and Disability in A Community Sample of People with Diabetes. Diabetes Care. Nov 2009; 32, 11.

Kodl CT, Seaquist ER. Cognitive Dysfunction and Diabetes Mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2008; 29(4): 494–511. Published online 2008 Apr 24. doi: 10.1210/er.2007-0034PMCID: PMC2528851

Aung PP , Strachan MWJ, Frier BM, Butcher I, Deary IJ and Price JF. Complications Severe hypoglycaemia and late-life cognitive abilityin older people with Type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study. Diabet. Med. 2012; 29, 328–336.

Murray AM, Et al. 2011. Biomarkers of Renal Function and Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34:1827–1832.

Kusumawardani N et al. Behavior risk factors and lipid profiles of diabetes mellitus with hypertension among adult population in Indonesia Hhealth Science Journal of Indonesia. 2016; vol 7.

Kumar D, Raithatha SJ, Gupta S, Raj R, Kharod N. Burden of Self-Reported Noncommunicable Diseases in 26 Villages of Anand District of Gujarat, India. International Journal of Chronic Diseases. 2015; Article ID 260143, 6 pages

Hunter DJ, Reddy KS. Noncommunicable Diseases. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369:1336-1343. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1109345

Virtanen M, Head J, Dray-Spira R, Okuloff A, Tabak AG, Golberg M et al. Disability among Employees with Diabetes: Latent Class Analysis of Risk Factors in Three Prospective Cohort Studies. Plos one. Published: November 16, 2015.

Greg Edwards et al. Diabetes and physical disability among older US. Diabetes care. September 2000; 23, 9, proquest central page 1272

Siegel KR, Patel SA, Ali MK. Non-communicablediseasesinSouthAsia: contemporary perspectives. BritishMedicalBulletin. 2014; vol 111, 31–44 doi:10.1093/bmb/ldu018

Richards , Nicola C., Gouda, Hebe N., Durham, Jo, Rampatige, Rasika, Rodney, Anna, Whittaker, Maxine. Disability, noncommunicable disease and health information. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2016; 94 (3): 230-232.

Uchendu C, Blake H. Systematic Review or Meta-analysis. Effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy onglycaemic control and psychological outcomes in adultswith diabetes mellitus: a systematic review andmeta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabet. Med. 2017; 34, 328–339.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan (Bulletin of Health Research, p-ISSN: 0125-9695. e-ISSN: 2338-3453) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
Main Indexing :

Visitor Number : View BPK Statistics
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.