Smoking and socio-demographic risk factors of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged and elderly Indonesian men

Wasis Sumartono, Maria H Herawati

Smoking and socio-demographic risk factors of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged and elderly Indonesian men

Abstract


Abstrak

Latar belakang: Di Indonesia kebiasaan merokok di antara laki-laki usia setengah baya dan baya relatif tinggi. Tujuan penulisan ini menggambarkan faktor risiko dominan terhadap penyakit jantung pada laki-laki 45 tahun ke atas di Indonesia.

Metode: Data diambil dari data Riskesdas 2007. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan tentang  status merokok, sosio-demografi, dan riwayat penyakit jantung ditanyakan dan dikumpulkan oleh tenaga pewawancara yang sudah dilatih dengan baik.

Hasil: Hasil  survey jumlah sampel yang  dianalisis adalah  92688 jenis kelamin laki-laki dengan umur 45 tahun ke atas. Perokok aktif dan semakin bertambahnya usia lebih berisiko terkena penyakit jantung.  Sedangkan orang dengan belanja rumah tangga rendah mempunyai risiko yang lebih sedikit terkena penyakit jantung. Jika dibandingkan yang bukan perokok, yang merokok antara 1-20 dan 21 batang per hari atau lebih masing-masing memiliki 15% dan 34% risiko terkena penyakit jantung [risiko relatif (RRa) =1.15; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI) = 1.09-1.20]. Dibandingkan umur 45-54 tahun, yang berumur 55-64, 65-74, dan 75-97 tahun masing-masing memiliki 17%, 38%, dan 83% terkena penyakit jantung (RRa = 1,17 ; 95% CI = 1,10–1,24; RRa = 1,38; 95% CI = 1,29–1,47; RRa = 1,83; 95% CI = 1,74-1,92). Bagi orang dengan belanja rumah tangga dengan pengeluaran rendah memiliki 7% lebih sedikit terkena penyakit jantung  (RRa = 0,93; 95% CI = 0,89–0,96

Kesimpulan: Umur lebih tua,  belanja rumah tangga rendah, dan lebih banyak jumlah batang yang dihisap mempertinggi risiko penyakit jantung. Sebagai tindakan pencegahannya dapat dilakukan antara lain dengan mengurangi jumlah batang rokok yang dikonsumsi per hari. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 20 - 25)

Kata kunci: penyakit kardiovaskular, rokok, umur tua, Indonesia

Abstract

Background: Smoking habits among middle-age and elderly in Indonesia is relatively high. The main objective of this study is to present the prevalence of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) and it’s risk factors (smoking and socio-demography) among middle-aged men in Indonesia.

Methods: Data for this analysis was a part of Basic Health Survey (BHS) 2007. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, history of CVDs and smoking behavior were obtained by highly-trained interviewers using a questionnaire which had been tested previously.

Results: A sub-sample of the survey was 92226 males aged 45-97 years. There are tendency that more cigarette smoking and getting older increased risk cardiovascular disease.  On the hand among people who had lower household expenditure had less risk to be cardiovascular disease. Compared with those did not smoke, those who smoke cigarette for 1 to 20 and 21 or more  stick per day had 15% and 34% more risk to be cardiocardiovascular disease [adjusted relative risk (RRa) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.20; RRa= 1.37 ; 95% CI = 1.27-1.47 ] respectively. In term of age, compared with those age 45 to 54 years, those who aged 55-64, 65-74, and 75-97 years had 17%, 38%, and 83% to be cardiovascular disease (RRa = 1.19 ; 95% CI = 1.12 – 1.27; RRa = 1.37 ; 95% CI = 1.29 – 1.46; RRa = 1.94 ; 95% CI =  1.84– 2.04 ] respectively. In term level of household expenditure people with Household expenditure had 7% less to be CVDs (RRa = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.06 – 1.15

Conclusion: Older age and low house expenditure people and more number of cigarettes trend to increase risk CVDs. Self  assessment of age, and number of cigarettes can be used to control the risk of CVDs. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 20 -25)

Keywords


cardiovascular diseases, smoking, older age, Indonesia

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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

p-ISSN: 2087-7021
e-EISSN: 2338-3437

Published by : Badan Litbang Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI

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