Artesdiaquine and Primaquine combined treatment is more effective for Malaria vivax

Santoso Santoso

Artesdiaquine and Primaquine combined treatment is more effective for Malaria vivax

Abstract


Abstrak

Latar belakang: Pengobatan malaria di Kabupaten OKU sejak tahun 2009 telah menggunakan artesdiakuin untuk malaria vivak dan malaria falsiparum. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan gejala klinis awal penderita malaria vivak dan malaria falsiparum, efektivitas dan efek samping pemberian artesdiakuin.

Metode: Penelitian merupakan kuasi eksperimen menggunakan metode pre-post test. Sampling dilakukan secara consecutive terhadap pasien Puskesmas Pengaringan, OKU selama bulan Februari sampai Juni 2010. Diagnosis malaria didasarkan adanya plasmodium pada darah pasien secara mikroskopis. Seluruh pasien yang didiagnosis malaria diterapi artesdiakuin pada H0 sampai H2 sedangkan pemberian primakuin hanya dilakukan pada H0. Pengamatan dilakukan i selama 28 hari yaitu pada H0 sampai H3, H7, H14, H21 dan H28. Pengamatan efek samping dilakukan pada H0 sampai H3 sedangkan penilaian efikasi obat dilakukan setelah H28.

Hasil: Diperoleh jumlah penderita malaria falsiparum sebanyak 23 orang dan malaria vivak sebanyak 12 orang. Gejala klinis awal sebelum terapi ditemukan pada 91,3%  pada subjek dengan malaria falciparum berupa menggigil, anoreksia, sakit kepala, pusing dan nyeri otot. Gejala tersebut terjadi pada 50% subjek dengan malari vivak. Obat anti-malaria artesdiakuin memiliki efikasi yang baik (100%) terhadap penderita malaria vivax namun pada penderita malaria falsiparum hanya diperoleh 87%. Efek samping artesdiakuin ditemukan berupa gatal, pusing, mual, muntah dan nyeri lambung. Efek samping obat lebih berat pada penderita malaria falsiparum dibandingkan malaria vivak.

Kesimpulan: Penderita malaria vivax lebih banyak yang tidak mengalami gejala klinis awal. Artesdiakuin lebih efektif pada penderita malaria vivak dibandingkan penderita malaria falsiparum. Efek samping yang ditemukan berupa menggigil, anoreksia, sakit kepala, pusing dan nyeri otot. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 26 -32)

Kata kunci: malaria, artesdiakuin, efektivitas, efek samping

 

Abstract

Background: Malaria treatment in Souh Sumatra has been using artesdiaquine since 2009 for falciparum and vivax malaria. This study is aimed to examine the comparison of the effectiveness of anti-malaria drugs artesdiaquine and its side effects between falciparum malaria and vivax malaria treatment.

Methods: This consecutive sampling quasi experimental research was conducted during February to June 2010 in a district of South Sumatra (Indonesia).

Diagnosis based on peripheral blood smear plasmodium finding. All patients positive for Plasmodium were observed for 28 days: 0-3 (D0) to 3th (D3), 7th (D7), 14th (D14), 21th (D21) and 28th day (D28). Therapy of artesdiaquine on D0 to D2, while primaquine was only gives on D0. The observations of side effects were done on D0 to D3. The assessments of drug efficacy were immediately after D28.

Results: Twenty three falciparum malaria patients and and twelve  vivax malaria patients were included as study subjects Initial clinical symptoms of chills, headache, dizziness, anorexia, and muscle aches were found in falciparum malaria subjects and vivax malaria subjects were 91.3% and 50% respectively. The results showed anti-malaria drugs artesdiaquine had 100% efficacy of vivax malaria patients however for falciparum malaria acquired was only 87%. Artesdiaquine side effects consisted of itching, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain, were more prevalent in patients with falciparum malaria than vivax malaria.

Conclusion: The number of malaria vivax patients less clinical symptoms occurred than falciparum malaria. The effectiveness of artesdiaquine anti malaria drugs combination for vivax malaria was better than falciparum malaria. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 26 - 32)

Keywords


malaria, artesdiaquine, effectiveness, side effects

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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

p-ISSN: 2087-7021
e-EISSN: 2338-3437

Published by : Badan Litbang Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI

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