Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and its residue on environment

Endang Puji Astuti, Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara

Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and its residue on environment

Abstract


Abstrak
Latar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian
pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana), ikan lele (Clarias batrachus), dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang
berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v) dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudian
diujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut.
Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin
0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit) dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus). (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9)

Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanah

Abstract
Background: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), catfishes (Clarias batrachus) and nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In addition, we aimed to measure the infiltration rate ofdeltamethrin insecticides in different types of soil. Methods: An experimental study was conducted on laboratory-reared P. americana in Institut Pertanian Bogor (Agricultural Institute, Bogor). Using five different deltamethrin concentrations 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v) in three replications, we assessed deltamethrin residual effect against cockroaches in 24 and 48-hrs. Lethal concentration (LC ) for cockroaches was determined using Probit analysis. The lethal concentration was
50 then tested on C. batrachus and O. niloticus in spraying and soaking method using organophosphate 1 ppm and 10 ppm. Infiltration rate of insecticide on three soil type was measured with lysimeter. Results: The toxic effect (LC ) of deltamethrin residue against cockroach reached at concentration of 500.2% in 24-hrs. Fifty per cent of nile-tilapia were killed by deltamethrin 0.2% within 24-hrs. Infiltration capacity of the insecticide were higher on sandy soil (5 ml/mins) than dominantly-composed by clay soil. Conclusions: Deltamethrin 0.2% had a knockdown effect on P. americana, may infiltrate soil and waterbodies, and had a residual toxic effect on nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9)

Keywords: deltamethrin, residual effect, P. a m e r ic a n a, O. niloticus, soil


Keywords


deltamethrin, residual effect, P. americana, O. niloticus, soil

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