The number of sectors and other risk factors related to fatigue among shorthaul commercial pilots in Indonesia

Inne Yuliawati, Minarma Siagian, Thamrin Abudi, Bastaman Basuki

Abstract


Abstrak

Latar belakang: Kelelahan penerbang sipil, termasuk pada penerbangan jarak dekat, dapat mempengaruhi fungsikognitif penerbang sehingga membahayakan keselamatan penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasifaktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kelelahan penerbang sipil pada penerbangan jarak dekat di Indonesia.

Metode: Desain penelitian potong lintang dengan purposive sampling dilakukan di antara penerbang jarak dekatdengan rating Boeing 737 series yang melaksanakan pengujian kesehatan di Balai Kesehatan Penerbanganperiode 5-26 Mei, 2014. Kelelahan diukur dengan Self-Reporting Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).Data dikumpulkan dengan pengisian kuesioner oleh subyek yang meliputi demografi, pekerjaan, kehilanganwaktu tidur (Epworth Sleepiness Scale - ESS), faktor personal, dukungan manajemen, dan FSS. Analisis regresilinear dipakai untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor dominan berkaitan kelelahan.

Hasil: Di antara 785 penerbang yang melaksanakan pengujian kesehatan, 382 bersedia berpartisipasi, dan239 penerbang yang memenuhi kriteria. Rata-rata skala kelelahan adalah 4,66 (standar deviasi 1,202).Faktor-faktor dominan yang mempertinggi skala kelelahan adalah jumlah sektor 24 jam terakhir, jam terbangpenugasan di luar jadwal, dan kehilangan waktu tidur. Setiap penambahan 1 sektor dalam 24 jam terakhirmeningkatkan 0,371 skala kelelahan [koefisien regresi (β) = 0,371; P = 0,000]. Selanjutnya setiap penambahan1 jam terbang penugasan di luar jadwal mempertinggi 0,033 skala kelelahan (β = 0,033; P = 0,000). Sedangkan setiap penambahan 1 nilai ESS mempertinggi 0,043 skala kelelahan (β = 0,043; P = 0,008).

Kesimpulan: Penambahan jumlah sektor 24 jam terakhir, kehilangan waktu tidur, dan penambahanjam terbang penugasan di luar jadwal mempertinggi risiko kelelahan di antara penerbang sipil padapenerbangan jarak dekat di Indonesia. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:69-75)

Kata kunci: kelelahan, jumlah sektor, penerbang sipil, Indonesia

 

Abstract

Background: Fatigue could impair cognitive function in pilots which may lead to accidents in short-haul flight. Theaim of this study was to identify the risk factors related to fatigue among short-haul commercial pilots in Indonesia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted among Boeing 737 seriestyped-rating pilots taking medical examination at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta from May5-26, 2014. Fatigue was measured with Self-Reporting Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Datawere collected using anonymous self-reporting questionnaire on demographics, workload, sleep restriction(Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS), personal factors, and managerial support. Linear regression was used toidentify dominant risk factors related to fatigue.

Results: During data collection, 785 pilots were taking medical examination, 382 pilots were willing toparticipate, and 239 pilots met the criteria. The FSS mean was 4.66 ± 1.202. The number of sectors in 24hours, flight times of unplanned flights in 30 days, and sleep restriction were dominant factors of fatigue.Each additional sector increased FSS by 0.371 points [regression coefficient (β) = 0.371; P = 0.000].Furthermore, each additional ESS, increased FSS by 0.043 points (β = 0.043; P = 0.008), while eachadditional unplanned flights increased FSS by 0.033 points (β = 0.033; P = 0.000).

Conclusions: Additional number of sectors in 24 hours, additional unplanned flight times within 30 days,and sleep restriction increased the risk of fatigue among short-haul commercial pilots in Indonesia. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:69-75)

Keyword: Fatigue, number of sectors, pilots, Indonesia


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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

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