Effect of purified gambir leaves extract to prevent atherosclerosis in rats

Nanang Yunarto, Nurul Aini

Abstract


Abstrak

Latar belakang: Aterosklerosis merupakan faktor risiko timbulnya penyakit jantung koroner (PJK). Senyawakatekin memiliki aktivitas antioksidan tinggi yang dapat menghambat terjadinya aterosklerosis. Ekstrak daungambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb.) mengandung katekin tinggi sehingga berpotensi menghambat terjadinyaaterosklerosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek ekstrak terpurifikasi daun gambir dalam menghambataterosklerosis pada tikus.

Metode: Desain penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorium yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Farmasidan Laboratorium Hewan, Badan Litbangkes, Kemenkes RI pada tahun 2014. Ekstrak gambir dipurifikasi untukdiperoleh kandungan katekin yang optimal, selanjutnya dilakukan uji aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan pereaksi2,2-difenil-1-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) dengan pembanding asam askorbat. Penelitian ini menggunakan 36 ekortikus putih jantan galur Sprague Dawley berusia 2,5 bulan yang dibagi secara acak ke dalam enam kelompokyaitu kelompok normal, kontrol negatif (akuades), kontrol positif (atorvastatin 2 mg/200 g bb), ekstrak dosis I (20mg/200 g bb), dosis II (40 mg/200 g bb) dan dosis III (80 mg/200 g bb). Tikus diinduksi dengan makanan yangmengandung lemak tinggi dan perlakuan pengobatan sesuai kelompoknya selama 60 hari, kecuali kontrol normal.

Hasil: Kadar katekin dalam ekstrak gambir terpurifikasi diperoleh sebesar 92,69%. Dari uji aktivitasantioksidan diperoleh IC50 11,76 μg/mL. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antiateroskelrosis menunjukkan bahwa jikadibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif, ketiga dosis ekstrak gambir terpurifikasi mampu mencegah terjadinyaaterosklerosis dengan menghambat penebalan dinding aorta dan pembentukan sel busa (p<0,05). Aktivitasantiaterosklerosis meningkat dengan bertambahnya dosis.

Kesimpulan: Ekstrak gambir terpurifikasi mempunyai efek mencegah penebalan dinding dan pembentukansel busa aorta tikus. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:105-10)

Kata kunci: gambir, katekin, antiaterosklerosis

 

Abstract

Background: Atherosclerosis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Catechin have highantioxidant activity that can prevent atherosclerosis. Gambir (Uncaria gambir, Roxb.) leaves extract havehigh catechin content thereby potentially inhibiting atherosclerosis. This research was aimed to examineeffect of purified gambir leaves extract to prevent atherosclerosis in rats.

Methods: The experimental laboratory study was conducted in Pharmacy Laboratory and Animal Laboratory,National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia in 2014.Gambir leaves extract were purified to gain optimum catechin. Afterwards, antioxidant activity was testedusing 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, with ascorbic acid as positive control. Thirty six whitemale Sprague Dawley rats aged 2.5 months were randomly divided into six groups, i.e. normal control group,negative control group (aquadest), positive control group (atorvastatin 2 mg/200 g bw),extract dose I (20mg/200 g bw), dose II (40 mg/200 g bw) and dose III (80 mg/200 g bw). The rats were given high fat diet andtreatment according to their group for 60 days, except for normal control group.

Results: Catechin content in the purified gambir leaves extract was 92,69%. From antioxidant activity test, IC50 wasfound to be 11,76 μg/mL. Anti-atherosclerotic activity study shown that compared to negative control, all three dosesof purified gambir leaves extract were able to prevent atherosclerosis through inhibition of aortic wall thickening andfoam cell formation due to high fat diet (p<0.05). Anti-atherosclerotic activity increased with increasing dose.

Conclusion: Gambir leaves purified extract had the effect of preventing the thickening of the walls andfoam cell formation rat aorta. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:105-10)

Keywords: gambir, catechin, antiatherosclerosis


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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

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