Predominant clinical symptom of influenza A in pre-school children (3-6 years old)

Hartanti Dian Ikawati, Roselinda Roselinda, Rabea Pangerti Yekti, Vivi Setiawaty

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Sebagian besar kasus Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) dari surveilans ILI yang dilaksanakan pada tahun 2011 adalah anak-anak yang terinfeksi oleh Influenza A. Identifikasi terhadap gejala khas Influenza pada anak dapat menghindarkan anak dari terapi antibiotik yang tidak perlu. Gejala klinis ILI pada anak-anak telah dipelajari secara luas, namun  gejala khas ILI pada anak usia 3-6 tahun belum diidentifikasi. Tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk menentukan gejala klinis dominan Influenza A pada anak prasekolah (3-6 tahun) dengan ILI.

Metode: Kasus berusia 3-6 tahun yang sesuai definisi kasus ILI dilibatkan dalam studi ini. Data yang digunakan meliputi data demografi (jenis kelamin), gejala klinis (demam, batuk, pilek, sakit tenggorokan dan nyeri otot) dan hasil PCR yang diperoleh dari surveilans ILI. Untuk analisis statistik digunakan aplikasi STATA 9. Odd Ratio (OR) ditentukan menggunakan metode maximum likelihood. Gejala klinis dianggap dominan ketika uji bivariat p-value <0,25 dan faktor dominan ini akan dipilih sebagai calon pemodelan multivariat bersama dengan faktor dominan lainnya.

Hasil: Tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan influenza A pada anak laki-laki dan perempuan. Namun laki-laki memiliki risiko yang lebih besar. Lebih dari 90% anak-anak dengan influenza A mengalami batuk dan pilek namun secara statistik tidak signifikan. Prediktor multivariat terbaik dari influenza A infeksi pada anak prasekolah (3-6 tahun) adalah demam dan nyeri otot dengan p = 0,001 dan p = 0,034.

Kesimpulan: Gejala dominan influenza A pada anak prasekolah (3-6 tahun) dengan ILI adalah demam dan nyeri otot. Studi lanjut tentang gejala klinis influenza A pada anak diperlukan untuk mempertajam diagnosis klinis influenza pada anak sehingga terapi antibiotik yang tidak perlu dapat dihindari. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2):80-83)

Kata kunci: gejala klinis, Influenza A, anak-anak

 

Abstract

Background: Most cases visiting public health centers with Influenza-like Illness (ILI) in 2011 were children infected by Influenza A. Defined clinical symptom in Influenza infection can avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy in children. Clinical features of ILI associated with influenza infection in children have been studied widely. Unfortunately no typical symptom for preschool children has been identified. The study aim to determine the predominant clinical symptom of Influenza A virus infection among preschool age (3-6 years old) with ILI.

Method: Cases age 3-6 years old who met the ILI case definition were included. For the analyses, demographic data (sex), clinical symptom (fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat and muscle aches) and PCR result obtained from ILI surveillance. Statistical analyses performed using STATA 9 software. Odd Ratio (OR) value were determined using the maximum likelihood method. Clinical symptoms considered dominant when the bivariate test p-value <0.25 and the next dominant factor will be selected as candidates for multivariate modeling along with other dominant factors.

Result: There was no significant difference between male and female cases with influenza A. However, male had greater risk. Most children with influenza A reported cough (p=0.346) and runny nose (p=0.798). The best multivariate predictor of influenza A infection in preschool children (3-6 years old) were fever with p=0,001 and muscle aches with p=0,034.

Conclusion: The predominant symptoms of influenza A infection among preschool children (3 - 6 years) with ILI were fever and muscle aches. Accurate identification of influenza in children is becoming very important to avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy in children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2):80-83)

Key words: Clinical symptom, Influenza A, children


 


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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

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