Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

Suparmi Suparmi, Belinda Chiera, Julianty Pradono


Latar Belakang: Angka kematian neonatal di Indonesia mengalami stagnansi sejak sepuluh tahun terakhir. Dalam rangka mengakselerasi penurunan angka kematian neonatal di Indonesia, intervensi spesifik diperlukan pada faktor utama penyebab kematian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi berat badan lahir rendah terhadap kematian neonatal di Indonesia.

Metode: Data Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012 digunakan untuk analisis. Sejumlah 18021 kelahiran hidup dalam periode lima tahun terakhir telah dilaporkan oleh responden. Terdapat 14837 anak memiliki informasi lengkap untuk analisis. Adjusted relative risk dengan analisis survival digunakan untuk mengukur hubungan antara variable dengan kematian neonatal.

Hasil: Anak yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah memiliki risiko 9.89 kali lebih tinggi untuk kematian neonatal bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dengan berat badan normal [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.41 – 13.19); P = < 0.0001]. Anak yang lahir dari ibu berumur muda (15 - 19 tahun) memiliki risiko 94% lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dari ibu dengan umur antara 20-35 years. Anak dari ibu yang bekerja 81% memiliki risiko kematian neonatal lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dari ibu tidak bekerja.

Kesimpulan: Anak yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah dan lahir dari ibu muda memiliki risiko kematian neonatal lebih tinggi. Bayi yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah membutuhkan perawatan yang tepat untuk memperpanjang ketahanan hidup anak. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2):113-117)

Kata kunci: Berat badan lahir rendah, kematian neonatal, Indonesia



Background: Neonatal mortality rates in Indonesia remain steady in the past decades (20 in 2002 to 19 per 1000 live births in 2012). In order to accelerate the decline in neonatal mortality rate in Indonesia, specific interventions would have to target key factors causing mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia.

Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children) were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality.

Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.41 – 13.19); P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years) had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers.

Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2):113-117)

Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia




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