Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors on Perinatal Depression among Mothers and Infants in Three Primary Health Centers in Jakarta and Bogor

Sri Idaiani, Nunik Kusumawardani, Rofingatul Mubasyiroh, Olwin Nainggolan, Enung Nurchotimah

Abstract


Latar belakang: Masa kehamilan dan persalinan merupakan waktu yang sangat penting bagi wanita. Pada masa tersebut wanita lebih mudah mengalami gangguan emosional seperti depresi. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan proporsi depresi perinatal,  karakteristik dan determinan sosial ekonomi pada ibu baru melahirkan.

Metode: Rancangan penelitian potong lintang, dilaksanakan bulan Juli-Agustus 2016. Populasinya adalah ibu yang baru melahirkan. Subjek sebanyak 347 orang yang tinggal di wilayah Puskesmas Tebet Jakarta, Puskesmas Merdeka dan Sindangbarang di Kota Bogor. Kriteria inklusi berumur ≥ 18 tahun, melahirkan bayi dalam periode 4-16 minggu sebelum interview. Kriteria eksklusi apabila ibu belum pernah melahirkan dan tidak tinggal di wilayah tersebut. Wawancara terstruktur dilakukan oleh enumerator yang dilakukan di rumah responden. Depresi dinilai dengan kuesioner Edinburgh postnatal depression (EPDS). Data dianalisis dengan analisis univariat dan uji beda rerata dan proporsi 2 dan lebih 2 variabel bebas. Software yang digunakan STATA versi 10.

Hasil: Secara umum proporsi depresi perinatal 15,3%, dengan rincian: proporsi di wilayah Puskesmas Merdeka 23,6%, Puskesmas Tebet 16,4%, sedangkan di wilayah Puskesmas Sindangbarang 6,1%, (p=0,002). Perbedaan karakteristik ibu dan bayi antara lain pendidikan (p=0,001), pekerjaan suami (p=0,001), status perkawinan (p=0,001), tingkat ekonomi (p=0,001) dan panjang bayi (p=0,0122)

Kesimpulan: Proporsi dan karakteristik berbeda diantara 3 wilayah. Proporsi terendah di Sindangbarang dengan karakteristik pendidikan rendah, suami bekerja tidak tetap, tingkat ekonomi rendah dan panjang bayi yang lebih pendek.

Kata kunci: depresi perinatal, EPDS, karakteristik.

 

Abstract

Background: The period of pregnancy and childbirth is a very important time for women. During that time, women are more likely to experience emotional disorders such as depression. The objective of this study was to obtain the proportion of perinatal depression (PND), characteristics and socioeconomic determinants of mothers who had just delivered and their babies.

Method: The study design was cross sectional which was conducted in July – August 2016. The subjects were 347 mothers living in territory of Primary Health Center (PHC) of Tebet, Jakarta; and PHC of Merdeka and Sindangbarang in Bogor. The inclusion criteria were mother aged ≥ 18 years, after labour  within 4-16 weeks before the interview.  The exclusion criteria were had not ever delivered baby and not living in the study areas. The depression was assessed with an Edinburgh postnatal depression (EPDS) questionnaire. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and mean difference test for two or more variables using STATA version 10.

Results: In general, the proportion of PND was 15.3%, in which this proportion comprised of 23.6% in PHC of Merdeka, 16.4% in PHC of Tebet, and 6.1% in PHC of Sindangbarang, (p=0.002). Differences in maternal and infant characteristics include education (p=0.001), husband occupation (p=0.001), marital status (p=0.001), economic level (p=0.001) and infants length (p=0.0122).

Conclusion: The proportion and characteristics differs in the three areas. The lowest proportion was in Sindangbarang with low education, informal husband occupation , low socioeconomic and shorter infants length characteristics.

Keywords: perinatal depression, EPDS, characteristics.



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