Kriptosporidiosis di Indonesia

Tri Wijayanti

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis included to waterborne and soil transmited diseases, caused by Cryptosporidium, obligat intraceluller pathogen organism. Cryptosporidium cause intestinal infection of human and animal acute diarrhea. Lung cryptosporidiosis on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis  patients was reported. Diarrhea still be important health problem because diarrhea was be the third dominant contributor of children morbidity and mortality at some country include Indonesia. Every children have 1,6-2x diarrhea onset annually. Diarrhea cases caused by Cryptosporidium sp parasite was around 4-11%.

Focus of this review is  about cryptosporidiosis on children, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients, animal, environment, diagnostic and it’s prevention and control. Cryptosporidium species confirmed in Indonesia are C. wrairi, C. muris,  C. felis, C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. parvum, indicated that there was a big rule of animal on Cryptosporidium transmission. Cryptosporidium was necessary to be one of diseases diagnose on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients. Transmission of Cryptosporidium by  respiratory secretion (droplet, aerosol or contact with vomiting) must be anticipated to prevent cryptosporidiosis especially on imunocompromissed/imunodeficiency people. Rapid Diagnostic Test that have highly sensitivity and spesificity is very important on Cryptosporidium cases finding and surveillance in Indonesia. Environment and cattle sanitation, personal hygiene, water and food treatment, is necessary to prevent cryptosporidiosis transmission.

 

Kriptosporidiosis termasuk waterborne dan soil transmitted diseases, disebabkan oleh Cryptosporidium yang bersifat obligat intraseluler. Cryptosporidium menyebabkan infeksi pada usus halus dan dapat menyebabkan diare akut pada manusia dan hewan. Kriptosporidiosis paru telah dilaporkan pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis. Diare merupakan penyumbang utama ketiga angka kesakitan dan kematian anak di berbagai negara termasuk Indonesia. Di Indonesia, setiap anak mengalami serangan diare sebanyak 1,6-2 kali setahun. Kasus diare yang disebabkan oleh parasit Cryptosporidium sp berkisar antara 4-11%.

Fokus tulisan ini adalah hasil penelitian tentang infeksi Cryptosporidium anak-anak, penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis, hewan, lingkungan, teknik diagnosa dan upaya pengendaliannya. Spesies Cryptosporidium yang terkonfirmasi ada di Indonesia adalah  C. wrairi, C. muris,  C. felis, C. hominis, C. melagridis dan C. parvum, yang mengindikasikan besarnya peranan hewan dalam penularan kriptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium sp perlu dipertimbangkan dalam diagnosa penyakit pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis. Kemungkinan penularan kriptosporidiosis melalui sekresi pernafasan baik dari droplet, aerosol maupun kontak dengan muntahan harus diantisipasi untuk mencegah penularan terutama pada individu imunokompromi/imunodefisiensi. Teknik diagnosa cepat  yang mempunyai sensitifitas dan spesifisitas yang tinggi sangat penting dalam membantu penemuan kasus dan surveilans kriptosporidiosis di Indonesia. Pentingnya menjaga sanitasi lingkungan dan ternak, higiene perseorangan, pengelolaan air minum dan makanan untuk mencegah penularan kriptosporidiosis.

 


Keywords


kriptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium sp.; diare; tuberkulosis; HIV/AIDS

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