Aktivitas Larvasida Berbagai Pelarut pada Ekstrak Biji Kayu Besi Pantai (Pongamia pinnata) terhadap Mortalitas Larva Aedes spp.

Yuneu Yuliasih, Mutiara Widawati

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Upaya pengendalian Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) secara kimiawi dapat berbahaya bagi manusia dan lingkungannya, sehingga perlu insektisida hayati yang berasal dari tumbuhan seperti Pongamia pinnata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas larvasida berbagai ekstrak biji P.  pinnata terhadap kematian larva Aedes spp. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen dengan post test only with control group design. Bahan yang digunakan yaitu ekstrak biji P. pinnata dengan pelarut air, metanol dan kloroform. Ekstrak biji P. pinnata diuji terhadap larva instar III Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus dengan konsentrasi masing-masing kelompok 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm dan 500 ppm, kemudian diamati selama 24 jam. Masing-masing uji dilakukan dengan 3 kali pengulangan pada hari yang sama. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kematian larva hanya ditemukan pada ekstrak biji P. pinnata dengan pelarut metanol dan kloroform. Nilai LC50 ekstrak P. pinnata dengan pelarut metanol adalah 141,88 ppm terhadap Ae. aegypti dan 108,19 ppm terhadap Ae. albopictus. Sedangkan  nilai LC50 ekstrak P. pinnata dengan pelarut kloroform adalah 346,06 ppm terhadap Ae. aegypti dan 222,29 ppm terhadap Ae. albopictus. Hasil tersebut membuktikan bahwa ekstrak biji P. pinnata dengan pelarut air tidak efektif sebagai larvasida, sedangkan ekstrak dengan pelarut metanol dan kloroform mempunyai potensi sebagai larvasida.

Kata kunci: Pongamia pinnata, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, larvasida

ABSTRACT

The use of chemical compound as a way to control DHF may cause harmful effect for humans and environment. It is necessary to develop biological insecticides derived from plants such as Pongamia pinnata. This study was designed to determine the larvicidal activity of P. pinnata seeds extract with various solvent on Aedes spp. This study was an experimental research with post test only control group design. Materials used in the research were P. pinnata seed extracts with water, methanol and chloroform solvents of concentration; 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm and 500 ppm. Larvicidal activity of P. pinnata seed extracts was tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, 24 hours observation was carried out within each treatment. Every test was repeated for 3 times. The result showed that larvae mortality was found in the methanol extract with LC50 value of 141.88 ppm for Ae. aegypti and 108.19 for Ae. albopictus, and in the chloroform extract with LC50 value of 346.06 ppm for Ae. aegypti and 222.29 ppm for Ae. albopictus. The water extract of P. pinnata seed was not effective as a larvicidal, while methanol and chloroform of P. pinnata seed extracts act as potential natural insecticide.

Keywords: Pongamia pinnata, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, larvicidal

Keywords


Pongamia pinnata; Ae. aegypti; Ae. albopictus; larvisida

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