Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum L) dari Semarang, Temanggung, dan Kendal Sebagai Larvasida Aedes aegypti L

Sri Wahyuni Handayani, Dhian Prastowo, Hasan Boesri, Ary Oktsariyanti, Arum Sih Joharina

Abstract


Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) merupakan permasalahan kesehatan di Indonesia. Penyebaran DBD melalui vektor nyamuk. Pengendalian vektor merupakan tahapan penting dalam mencegah DBD. Adanya resistensi insektisida membuat pengendalian vektor terhambat, sehingga diperlukan penelitian inovasi insektisida nabati, salah satunya tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum L). Penelitian bertujuan menguji efektivitas larvasida ekstrak tembakau terhadap larva Aedes aegypti serta menganalisis kandungan nikotin dari tembakau yang dikoleksi dari tiga tempat, yaitu Semarang, Temanggung, dan Kendal; menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental murni, dan dilaksanakan Maret-Desember 2013. Tembakau diekstraksi dengan etanol lalu diuji pada larva Ae. aegypti instar tiga. Hasil pengujian memperlihatkan ekstrak tembakau Temanggung paling aktif sebagai larvasida diikuti Semarang dan Kendal, sedangkan untuk  mendapatkan respon biologis 90% kematian dari jumlah total sampel larva diperlukan konsentrasi ekstrak tembakau Kendal pada konsentrasi 447ppm, Semarang 241ppm, dan Temanggung 212ppm. Efek larvasida ekstrak tidak berbanding lurus dengan kadar nikotin ekstrak tembakau, yaitu tembakau Semarang (4,69%), Temanggung (3,61%), dan Kendal (1,85%).

Kata kunci: ekstrak tembakau, larvasida, LC90, nikotin.

 

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever (DF) is a health problem in Indonesia. The spread of DF occurs through mosquito vectors. Vector control is one of important methods in dengue prevention. However, the occurence of insecticide resistance leads the need of new inovation of botanical insecticide, such tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L). The research aimed to know larvicidal effectivity of tobacco extracts against Aedes aegypti larvae, and also analyzed nicotine content of tobacco leaves which collected from three sites: Semarang, Temanggung, and Kendal; used  experimental design and carried out on March-December 2013. Tobacco leaves was extracted with etanol then tested to Aedes aegypti larvae three. The results showed that tobacco leaves from Temanggung was the most active as larvicides, then were followed from Semarang and Kendal. The analysis result showed that to reach 90% death from total number of larvae samples (LD90), required tobacco extract of Kendal at concentration 447ppm, Semarang 241ppm, and Temanggung 212ppm. Larvicidal effects of tobacco leaf extract was unproportional to the content of nicotine, namely Semarang (4,69%), Temanggung (3,61%), and Kendal (1,85%).

Keywords: tobacco extract, larvacide, LC90, nicotine.


Keywords


ekstrak tembakau; larvasida; LC90; nikotin

References


Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan. Situasi DBD di Indonesia. InfoDATIN [Internet]. 2016;p 12. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatin dbd 2016.pdf

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan 2017. Data and Information Indonesia Health Profile 2016. 2016. 168 p. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/lain-lain/Data dan Informasi Kesehatan Profil Kesehatan Indonesia 2016 - smaller size - web.pdf.

Chowański S, Adamski Z, Marciniak P, Rosiński G, Büyükgüzel E, Büyükgüzel K, et al. A Review of bioinsecticidal activity of solanaceae alkaloids. Toxins (Basel) [Internet]. 2016;8(3):60. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/3/60 doi: 10.3390/toxins8030060.

Augusta A. Minyak atsiri tumbuhan tropika Indonesia. Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung; 2000.

Marlin D, Nicolson SW, Yusuf AA, Stevenson PC, Heyman HM, Krüger K. The only african wild tobacco, nicotiana africana: alkaloid content and the effect of herbivory. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):1–10

Prasetiyo A. Kajian produktivitas dan mutu tembakau Temanggung berdasarkan nilai indeks erodibilitas dan kepadatan tanah. J Tanah dan Sumberd Lahan. 2016;3(2):389–99.

Nurnasari, E. Djumali. Pengaruh kondisi ketinggian tempat terhadap produksi dan mutu tembakau Temanggung. Bul Tanam Tembakau, Serat Miny Ind. 2010;2(2):45-59.

Indriana K. Produksi bersih pada efisiensi dosis pupuk n dan umur panen daun tembakau terhadap kadar nikotin dan gula pada tembakau virginia. J Agrotek Indones. 2016;1(2):91–7

Alegantina S. Penetapan kadar nikotin dan karakteristik ekstrak daun tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum L). Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pelayanan kesehatan. 2017;1(2):113–9

Hossain MA, Al-Toubi WAS, Weli AM, Al-Riyami QA, Al-Sabahi JN. Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem. J Taibah Univ Sci. 2013;7(4):181–8

Hastono AD, Tirtosastro S. Mutu tembakau madura. In : Monograf Balittas No 4. Malang : Balai Penelitian Tembakau dan Tanaman Serat; 1993. p. 68–74

Afifah F, Rahayu YS, Faizah U. Efektivitas kombinasi filtrat daun tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum) dan filtrat daun paitan (Thitonia diversifolia) sebagai pestisida nabati hama walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius) pada tanaman padi. LenteraBio [Internet]. 2015;4(1):25–31. Available from: http://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/lenterabio%0AEfektivitas.

Wijayanti MP, Yuliawati S, Hestiningsih R. Uji toksisitas ekstrak daun tembakau (Nicotiana tobacum L.) dengan metode maserasi terhadap mortalitas larva Culex quinquefasciatus Say di laboratorium. J Kesehat Masy [Internet]. 2015;3(1):143-51. Available from: http://ejournal-s1.undip.ac.id/index.php/jkm%0AUJI

Rochman F. Pengembangan varietas unggul tembakau Temanggung tahan penyakit. J Litbang Pert. 2013;32(1):30–8

Ratnani DR, Hartati I, Yance A, Endah DP, Khilyati DDD. Standarisasi spesifik dan non spesifik ekstraksi hidrotropi andrografolida dari sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata). Pros Semin Nas Peluang Herb Sebagai Altern Med. 2015;147–55

WHOPES. Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005.13 Cds-Whopes. Geneva. WHO; 2005

Harborne,J B. Metode fitokimia : penuntun cara modern menganalisis tumbuhan. Padmawinata K, Soediro I, Niksolihin S, editor. Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung; 1987

Shekins O, Dorathy E, Labaran M, Joel P. Phytochemical screening of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its effects on some haematological parameters and histopathology of liver and brain in male rats. Int J Biochem Res Rev [Internet]. 2016;14(4):1–9. Available from: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/16808

Puripattanavong J, Songkram C, Lomlim L, Amnuaikit T. Development of concentrated emulsion containing nicotiana tabacum extract for use as pesticide. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2013;3(11):16–21.

Yulaikah S, Khuluq AD. Keragaman Karakter kualitatif, kuantitatif, dan identifikasi senyawa kimia ekstrak n-heksana beberapa aksesi plasma nutfah tembakau. Bul Tanam Tembakau, Serat Miny Ind. 2014;Vol 6, No2.

Mohammad MT, Tahir NA. Evaluation of chemical compositions of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) genotypes seeds. Annu Res Rev Biol. 2014;4(9):1480–9.

Malathi P, Vasugi SR. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal effect of Carica Papaya against Aedes Aegypti. Int J Mosq Res. 2015;2(3):21–4.

Ileke KD, Oyeniyi EA, Charles O, Adesina JM. Nicotiana tabacum a prospective mosquitocide in the management of Anopheles gambiae (Giles). Int J Mosq Res. 2015;2(4):19–23.

Sulistiyani A. Effectiveness of essential oil as larvacide on Aedes aegypti. J Majority. 2015;4(3):22–8.

Rawani A, Chowdhury N, Ghosh A, Laskar S, Chandra G. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts. Indian J Med Res [Internet]. 2013 May [cited 2013 Nov 7];137(5):972–6. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3734691&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.

Rawani A, Ray AS, Ghosh A, Sakar M, Chandra G. Larvicidal activity of phytosteroid compounds from leaf extract of Solanum nigrum against Culex vishnui group and Anopheles subpictus. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10(1):1–8.

Handayani SW, Boesri H, Priyanto H. Potensi umbi gadung (Dioscorea hispida) dan daun zodia (Euodia suaveolens) sebagai insektisida nabati. Media Penelit dan Pengemb Kesehat [Internet]. 2017;27(1):49–56. Available from: http://ejournal.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/MPK/article/view/4278.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


BALABA was indexed by:

Visitor Number : View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License