Pengendalian Vektor Malaria di Daerah Endemis Kabupaten Purworejo, Indonesia

Riyani Setiyaningsih, Wiwik Trapsilowati, Mujiyono Mujiyono, Lasmiati Lasmiati

Abstract


Purworejo merupakan daerah endemis malaria dengan peningkatan kasus tertinggi terjadi pada tahun 2015 sebesar 1411 kasus. Pengendalian yang tepat dapat dilakukan apabila diketahui bionomik vektor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui spesies, perilaku, resistensi dan pengendalian vektor. Metode yang dilakukan adalah koleksi nyamuk, koleksi jentik, survei habitat nyamuk, resistensi nyamuk, dan evaluasi efektivitas pengendalian vektor. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Sendangsari, Kecamatan Bener, Kabupaten Purworejo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, An. barbirostris menghisap darah di dalam, di luar rumah, dan kandang. Anopheles balabacensis menghisap darah di dalam rumah dan kandang, An. maculatus, An. aconitus, An. kochi, An. Indifinitus, dan An. vagus ditemukan menghisap darah di kandang. Hasil uji resistensi An. maculatus terhadap insektisida permetrin 0,75% adalah resisten. Pengendalian vektor yang dilakukan adalah Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) dan penggunaan kelambu berinsektisida. Tempat perkembangbiakan positif jentik adalah kobakan di sekitar ladang dan kolam tidak terpakai. Berdasarkan bioassay efektivitas aplikasi IRS terhadap An. maculatus menunjukkan setelah satu bulan aplikasi sudah tidak efektif. Uji efektivitas pemakaian kelambu selama tiga bulan masih efektif membunuh An. maculatus.

 

Kata kunci: malaria, IRS, kelambu

 

ABSTRACT

Purworejo is the endemic area of ​​malaria with the highest case increase occurring in 2015 amounted to 1411 cases. Appropriate control can be performed effectively based on vector bionomics. The aims of study were to determine species, behavior, resistance, and control methods of malaria vectors. Methods were larva andmosquitoes collection, breeding place of mosquitoes surveys, resistance of mosquito and evaluation of the effectiveness of vector control. The research was conducted in Sendangsari Village, Bener District, Purworejo Regency The result of the research showed that An. barbirostris sucked blood indoor, outdoor, and cage. An. balabacensis sucked blood indoor and cage. An. maculatus, An. aconitus, An. kochi, An. Indifinitus, and An. fagus were found to suck blood in the cage. An. maculatus showed resistance to insecticide permetrin 0,75% Indoor Residual spraying (IRS) and the use of insecticide treated bed nets were the vector control perfomed in the area of study. The breeding place of mosquito were in hole around unused fields and pond. Based on bioassay test, the effectiveness of IRS application for one months were not effectively kill An. maculatus while the use of mosquito nets for three months were still effectively kill An. maculatus.

Keywords: malaria, IRS, bednet


Keywords


malaria; IRS; kelambu

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