Resistensi Aedes aegypti terhadap Insektisida Kelompok Organopospat dan Sintetik Piretroid di Provinsi Sumatera Utara dan Provinsi Jambi

Sunaryo Sunaryo, Dyah Widiastuti

Abstract


Demam Berdarah Dengue masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di Provinsi Sumatera Utara dan Jambi. Pengendalian vektor menggunakan insektisida merupakan upaya andalan untuk menekan angka insiden DBD. Penggunaan insektisida yang kurang terkontrol dapat berakibat terjadi resistensi pada Aedes aegypti. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui status resistensi Aedes aegypti terhadap insektisida yang digunakan meliputi: malathion, deltametrin, cypermethrin, lambda cyhalothrin dan alpha cypermethrin. Desain penelitian adalah cross sectional, penelitian tahun 2015. Lokasi penelitian meliputi wilayah Sumatera Utara (Tebing Tinggi, Deli Serdang, dan Pematang Siantar) dan Jambi (Muaro Jambi, Jambi, dan Batang Hari). Uji resistensi menggunakan kit standar WHO diterapkan pada Ae. aegypti betina dewasa generasi F1. Wawancara dengan pengelola program di Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang penggunaan insektisida pada program pengendalian Ae. aegypti di kedua provinsi. Hasil pengujian Aedes aegypti sudah resisten terhadap malathion, cypermethrin, dan lambda cyhalothrin di semua lokasi penelitian. Di Deli Serdang Ae.aegypti masih toleran terhadap deltamethrin dan Ae.aegypti masih toleran terhadap alpha cypermethrin di semua lokasi penelitian. Insektisida yang sering digunakan di kedua provinsi adalah malathion dan cypermethrin. Kesimpulan penelitian yaitu alpha cypermethrin masih efektif untuk mengendalikan Ae.aegypti dan bisa dijadikan insektisida alternatif untuk program pengendalian demam berdarah Provinsi Sumatera Utara dan Jambi.

Kata kunci: resistensi, Aedes aegypti, organofosfat, sintetik piretroid

 

ABSTRACT

Vector control using insecticide is a major effort to control Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. The excessive use of insecticides leads to insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. This study aimed to determine the resistance status of Aedes aegypti in North Sumatra and Jambi Province to malathion, deltametrin, cypermethrin, lambda cyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin. A cross sectional study was conducted during 2015, the research location covers North Sumatera area (Tebing Tinggi, Deli Serdang, and Pematang Siantar) and Jambi (Muaro Jambi, Jambi, and Batang Hari). Susceptibility test using WHO kits was applied on F1 generation and interview with Local Public Health Officer was carried out to obtain information about the usage of insecticide in both provinces. Resistance to malathion, cypermethrin, and lambda cyhaltorhin was observed in Ae. aegypti populations from all study area. Tolerant status to deltamethrin only found in Aedes aegypti from Deli Serdang, whilst the other strains were resistant. Ae. aegypti population from all study area were tolerant to alpha cypermethrin. Malathion and cypermethrin were the only insecticide ever used in both provinces. We conclude that alpha cypermethrin was effective to combat Ae. aegypti and can be used as an alternative insecticide for dengue control program in Northern Sumatera and Jambi Province.

Keywords: resistance, Aedes aegypti, organophosphat, synthetic pyrethroid

 


Keywords


resistensi; Aedes aegypti; organofosfat; sintetik piretroid

References


Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Profil kesehatan Provinsi Sumatera Utara; 2014.

Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jambi. Profil kesehatan Provinsi Jambi. 2014.

Mahalingan S, Herring BL, Halstead SB. Call to action for dengue vaccine failure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(8):1335-7.

Gill HK, Garg H. Pesticide: environmental impacts and management strategies. Pesticides-Toxic Effects. Croatia: Intech; 2014.

WHO. Global Plan For Insecticide Resistance Management In Malaria Vector (GPIRM). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2012

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Pedoman penggunaan insektisida (pestisida) dalam pengendalian vektor; 2012.

Rodriguez MM, Hurtado D, Severson DW BJ. Inheritance of resistance to deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Cullicidae) from Cuba. J Med Entomol. 2014;51(6):1213-19.

Sunaryo, Ikawati B, Rahmawati, Widiastuti D. Status resistensi vektor demam berdarah dengue Aedes aegypti terhadap malathion. J Ekol Kesehat. 2014;2:146-52.

Ikawati B, Sunaryo, Widiastuti D. Peta status kerentanan Aedes aegypti (L.) terhadap insektisida cypermethrin dan malathion di Jawa Tengah. ASPIRATOR. 2015;1:23-28.

Soenjoni SJ. Status kerentanan nyamuk Aedes sp. (Diptera: Culicidae) terhadap malathion dan aktivitas enzim esterase non spesifik di wilayah kerja kantor kesehatan pelabuhan bandar udara Sam Ratulangi Manado. JKL. 2011;1(1):1–6.

Safitri. Pemetaan, karakteristik habitat dan status resistensi Aedes aegypti di Kota Banjarmasin Selatan, Kalimantan Selatan. Vektora. 2013;3(2):136–48.

Tasane I. Uji resistensi malathion 0,8 % terhadap nyamuk Aedes aegypti di wilayah fogging kantor kesehatan pelabuhan kelas II Ambon. Thesis. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro, Kesehatan Masyarakat; 2015

Ambarita LP, Taviv Y, Budiyanto A, Sitorus H, Pahlepi RIF. Tingkat kerentanan Aedes aegypti (Linn.) terhadap malation di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan. 2015;43(2):97–104.

Sunaryo, Widiastuti W. Pemetaan kerentanan Aedes aegypti terhadap iInsektisida di Indonesia. Laporan akhir penelitian. Banjarnegara:Balai Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara; 2015.

Ahmad I, Astari S, Resti R, Hariani N. Status kerentanan Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) pada Tahun 2006 -2017 terhadap malathion di Bandung, Jakarta, Surabaya, Palembang dan Palu. Biosfera. 2009;26(2):82-9.

Suarez, AM. and Verbel J. Chemical control of Aedes aegypti: a hsitorical perpective. Rev Castar Salud Publica. 2013;22(1):68-75.

Yaicharoen R, Kiatfuengfoo R, Chareonviriyaphap T, Rongnaparut RP. Characterization of deltramethrin resistance in field population of Aedes aegypti in Thailand. J Vector Ecol. 2005;30(1):144-50.

Georghiou G. The magnitude of resistance problem. Pesticide resistance: strategies and tactics for mangement. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1986.

Cox C. Insectiside fact sheet: cypermethrin. J Pesticde Reform/Summer. 1996;16(2):15-20.

Rodriguez DC, Ocampo NJ, Gonzales IF. Artificial selection of insecticide resistance to lamda cyhalothrin in Aedes aegypti and cross resitance to other insecticides. Rev Colomb Entomol. 2012;13(1):100-7.

Pronk MJE et al. Insecticides: cypermethrin and alpha cypermethrin. available at http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v38je07.htm. Diakses tanggal 10 Maret 2018

Widiarti, Heriyanto B, Boewono DT. Peta resistensi vektor demam berdarah dengue Aedes aegypti terhadap insektisida kelompok organofosfat, karbamat dan pyrethroid di provinsi Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta. Bul Penelit Kesehat. 2011;39(4):176-89.

Sayono, Din S. Distribusi resistensi nyamuk Aedes aegypti terhadap insektisida sipermetrin di Kota Semarang. In: Prosiding Seminar Hasil-Hasil Penelitian. Semarang: LPPM Unimus; 2012.

Thanispong K, Sathantriphop S, Chareonviriyaphap T. Insecticide resistance of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand. J Pestic Sci. 2008;33(4):351-56.

Koou SY et al. Insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:471. doi: 10.1186/s13071-014-0471-0

Fuentes SL, hayden MH, Rodriguez CW, Martinez CO et al. The dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti at high elevation in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87(5):902-9.

Hidayati H, Nazni WA, Lee HL et al. Insecticide resistance development in Aedes aegypti upon selection pressure with malathion. Trop Biomed. 2011;28(2):425-37.

Yang Y, Dong B, Xu H et al. Decrease of insecticide resistance over generations without exposure to insecticide in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemipteran: Delphacidae). J Ecxon Entomol. 2014;107(4):1618-25.

Shakoori A, Mahasti P, Moradi V. Determination of twenty organophosphorus pesticides in wheat samples from different regions of Iran. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2017;11(5):37-44

Rehman H, Aziz AT, Saggu S, et al. Systematic review on pyrethroid toxicity with special reference to deltamethrin. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2014; 2 (6): 60-70

Yahouédo GA, Chandre F, Rossignol M, et al. Contributions of cuticle permeability and enzyme detoxification to pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Scientific Reports. 2017;7-11091. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11357-z

Dang K, Dogget SL, Singham GV, Lee CY. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Parasites & Vectors (2017) 10:318


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


BALABA was indexed by:

Visitor Number : View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License