Perkiraan Asupan Iodium dan Natrium Menggunakan Urin 24 Jam pada Anak dan Dewasa

Djoko Kartono, Mohamad Samsudin, Sri Supadmi

Perkiraan Asupan Iodium dan Natrium Menggunakan Urin 24 Jam pada Anak dan Dewasa

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Basic health research (Riskesdas) 2007 found high rate of hypertension (31.7%). The question is, whether iodine fortification program in the salt still relevant because salt intake correlated with hypertension. This study is a cross sectional, assessing the levels of iodine and sodium in urine with estimation of iodine and sodium intake. This was a cross sectional study. Sample of this study were 99 families, including father, mother, and 6-12 years children. The study was conducted in three villages in Getasan Sub-district, Semarang District. Variables collected included body height and weight, iodine content of household salt, 24 hours urine volume, urine iodine and urine sodium excretion. Intake of iodine and sodium estimated with urinary iodine and sodium excretion values and urine volume. Type of salt consumed (97%) was brick form, the average of iodine content in salt was 20.4 ppm potassium iodate and consumption of salt was 8.0 ± 4.7 grams per day. Median and mean urine volume was 1500 (1523 mL ± 623) mL. The median urinary iodine excretion (EIU) is 93 (105 ± 61) μg/L. Proportion of subjects with < 100 μg/L UIE was 55.6% and ≥ 300 μg/L UIE was 1%. Median and mean urinary sodium excretion (USE) was 2588 mg/L (2732 ± 986) mg/L. The proportion of USE ≥ 2300 mg/L was 62%. Frequency of iodine and sodium food source consumption: 47.5% of subjects eating instant noodles and snacks 1-2 times a week, 98% consume MSG/ketchup/sauce ≥ 1 times a day. Frequency of salty foods consumption: 53.9% of subjects consumed 1-2 times a week and 26.9% consumed bread/biscuit/cake 1-2 times a week. Median and mean intake of iodine of subject (father, mother, child) was 113 ug/L and 126 ± 73 mg/L. Median and mean sodium intake were 3131 mg/L and 3306 ± 1193 mg/L. In sum, salt is a major source of iodine and sodium intakes although the level of iodine was considered low compared to the national standard of industry. The study location is a mild iodine deficiency area but considerably high intake of sodium based on the analysis of a 24 hour urine collection.

Keywords: adult, children, iodine, sodium, 24 hours urine.

 

ABSTRAK

Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2007 mendapatkan angka hipertensi yang tinggi (31.7%). Pertanyaannya, masih relevankah program fortifikasi iodium dalam garam karena konsumsi garam berkorelasi dengan hipertensi. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin serta perkiraan asupan natrium dan iodium. Disain studi potong lintang dengan sampel keluarga: bapak, ibu, anak 6-12 tahun. Lokasi di tiga desa di Kecamatan Getasan, Kabupaten Semarang. Sebanyak 99 keluarga menjadi sampel penelitian. Variabel dikumpulkan mencakup berat dan tinggi badan, kadar iodium

 

garam, volume urin 24 jam, kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin. Perkiraan asupan iodium dan natrium menggunakan nilai iodium dan natrium urin dan volume urin. Jenis garam yang dikonsumsi (97%) bentuk bata, rerata kadar iodium 20.4 ppm dan konsumsi garam 8.0 ± 4.7 gram per orang per hari. Median dan rerata volume urin 1500 mL dan 1523 ± 623 mL. Median dan rerata ekskresi iodium urin (EIU) 93 dan 105 ± 61 μg/L. Proporsi EIU subyek < 100 μg/L 55.6% dan EIU ≥ 300 μg/L 1%. Median dan rerata ekskresi natrium urin (ENU) 2588 mg/L (ppm) dan 2732 ± 986 mg/L. Proporsi ENU ≥ 2300 mg/L 62%. Frekuensi konsumsi sumber iodium dan natrium: 47.5% subyek mengonsumsi mi instan dan snack 1-2 kali seminggu, 98% mengonsumsi vetsin/kecap/saus ≥ 1 kali sehari. Frekuensi makan makanan asin: 53.9% subyek mengonsumsi 1-2 kali seminggu dan 26.9% mengonsumsi roti/biskuit/cake 1-2 kali seminggu. Median dan rerata asupan iodium (bapak, ibu, anak) 113 μg/L dan 126 ± 73 μg/L. Median dan rerata asupan natrium (bapak, ibu, anak) 3131 mg/L dan 3306 ± 1193 mg/L. Ringkasnya, garam merupakan sumber utama asupan iodium dan natrium walaupun kadar iodium dalam garam cukup rendah dibanding standar nasional industri. Lokasi penelitian merupakan daerah kekurangan iodium ringan namun tinggi asupan natrium berdasarkan analisis dari urin 24 jam.

Kata kunci: dewasa, anak, iodium, natrium, urin 24 jam.

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Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Micronutrient, p-ISSN: 2086-5198, e-ISSN: 2354-8746) is published by Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (Balai Litbang GAKI), Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

Kapling Jayan, Kec. Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang

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