Pengaruh Iodium terhadap Perubahan Fungsi Tiroid dan Status Iodium

Suryati Kumorowulan, Yusi Dwi Nurcahyani, Sri Kadarsih Soejono, Ahmad Hamim Sadewo

Pengaruh Iodium terhadap Perubahan Fungsi Tiroid dan Status Iodium

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Iodine is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. The source of iodine in the body comes from food, iodized salt and iodine capsules. Iodized salt and iodine capsules had been used by the government in Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) elimination program. However, iodine capsules prophylaxis program in the IDD endemic areas had caused symptoms of hyperthyroidism, subsequently the program was discontinued since 2009. The aim of this research to determine the effect of iodine supplementation on thyroid function and iodine status. This was quasi-experimental design, conducted in Pituruh Purworejo District. Sample of this study consisted of 85 women of childbearing age, divided into three intervention groups. Each group obtained iodized salt for one month, then continued with the provision of iodized salt and 200 mg iodine capsules in group I, iodized salt and 400 mg iodine capsules in group II, and iodized salt and shredded tuna fish 2 times a week in group III for 3 months. Thyroid status was measured by levels of TSH, FT4 analyzed with ELISA. Iodine status measured by UIE levels analyzed with spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed using General Linear Model Repeated Measure (GLM RM). After 3 months, in all three treatment groups the TSH changes were statistically significant. In FT4 hormone levels, after administration of the intervention occurred “Wolff-Chaikoff” mechanism. There were significant increase on Iodine status (UIE) (p< 0.05) in all three treatment groups. There is a change in iodine status and thyroid function after administration of three forms of iodine intervention.

Keywords: iodine, TSH, FT4, UIE.

ABSTRAK

Iodium merupakan bahan dasar untuk membentuk hormon tiroid. Sumber iodium tubuh berasal dari makanan, garam beriodium, dan kapsul iodium. Garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium telah digunakan oleh pemerintah dalam penanggulangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (GAKI). Namun peng-gunaan kapsul iodium secara tidak selektif telah menimbulkan gejala-gejala hipertiroid sehingga penggunaannya dihentikan sejak tahun 2009. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek pemberian iodium terhadap fungsi tiroid dan status iodium. Disain penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimen dengan sampel wanita usia subur sebanyak 85 orang yang terbagi dalam tiga kelompok intervensi. Setiap kelompok dilakukan pemberian garam beriodium selama satu bulan dan dilanjutkan dengan pemberian garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium 200 mg pada kelompok I, pemberian garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium 400 mg pada kelompok II, pemberian garam beriodium dan abon ikan tuna 2 kali seminggu pada kelompok III selama 3 bulan. Subyek diukur kadar TSH dan FT4 dengan metode ELISA, serta diukur kadar iodium dalam urin (UIE) dengan metode Spektrofotometer. Analisa data menggunakan General Linear Model Repeated Measure. Setelah tiga bulan intervensi terjadi perubahan kadar TSH yang bermakna secara statistik pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan. Pada kadar hormon FT4 setelah pemberian intervensi terjadi mekanisme “Wolff-Chaikoff” dan pada kadar UIE terjadi peningkatan yang bermakna secara statistik (p<0,05) pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan. Terjadi perubahan fungsi tiroid dan status iodium setelah pemberian intervensi iodium.

Kata kunci: TSH, FT4, UIE.


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Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Micronutrient, p-ISSN: 2086-5198, e-ISSN: 2354-8746) is published by Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (Balai Litbang GAKI), Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

Kapling Jayan, Kec. Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang

http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/mgmi

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