Asupan Sumber Natrium, Rasio Kalium Natrium, Aktivitas Fisik, Dan Tekanan Darah Pasien Hipertensi

Listiyaningsih Atun, Tri Siswati, Weni Kurdanti

Asupan Sumber Natrium, Rasio Kalium Natrium, Aktivitas Fisik, Dan Tekanan Darah Pasien Hipertensi

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Background. Sodium and potassium is the major cation in the extracellular fluid of the body which have the function to regulate fluid and acid base balance of the body. They play a role in nerve transmission and muscle contraction. Excessive intake can cause the distruction body’s balance, which can lead to oedema, ascites, and hypertention. Objective. This study aims to describe sodium intake, potassium sodium ratio, physical activity as risk factor for hypertention. Method. This was a descriptive analytic study with case control design was conducted at Puskesmas Sleman in July 2013. The independent variables were sodium intake, potassium sodium ratio and physical activity, while the dependent variable is hypertention status. Subject were 50 patients, 25 subjects with hypertention and 25 non hypertention, matching in sex and age. Sampling method were using accidental sampling. Inclusion criteria were new patients, >18 years old, willing to participate in the study, and able to communicate. Food intake was obtained using semi quantitative food frequency form during the past one month. Physical activity was measured using questionnaire of physical activity the past one week. All the questions asked in conjunction with blood pressure checks. Analysis used are chi square test and logistic regression. Results. Subjects with hypertention have more sodium intake (84%), compared to 52 percent of non hypertention subjects. The two groups had different intake of sodium and potassium, as 84 percent of subjects with hypertension had more sodium intake, and 52 percent of non hypertension subjects had moderate sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake can increase the risk of hypertention (p=0.016, OR=5.7, CI 95% 1.51-21.42). Less potassium sodium ratio can increase hypertention (p= 0.025, OR=5.8, CI 95% 1.36-24.33). Less of physical activity increase the risk of hypertention (p=0.032, OR=4.9, CI 95% 1.29-18.26). Logistic regression analysis showed that physical activity was the most significant risk factor of hypertention (p=0.035, OR 4.7, CI 95% 1.12-19.67).

Keywords: hypertention, intake, physical activity, potassium, sodium

ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang. Natrium dan kalium adalah kation utama dalam cairan ekstraseluler tubuh yang mempunyai fungsi mengatur keseimbangan cairan dan asam basa tubuh serta berperan dalam transmisi saraf dan kontraksi otot. Asupan yang berlebih dapat menyebabkan gangguan keseimbangan tubuh, sehingga dapat menyebabkan oedema, asites dan hipertensi. Tujuan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko dari natrium dan kalium pada kejadian tekanan darah tinggi. Metode. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Puskesmas Sleman pada bulan Juli 2013 dengan desain kontrol berpasangan. Variabel bebas adalah asupan natrium, rasio kalium natrium dan aktivitas fisik, sedangkan variabel terikat adalah status hipertensi. Subyek sebanyak 50 pasien, 25 subyek hipertensi dan 25 pasien non hipertensi, matching berdasarkan jenis kelamin dan usia. Metode sampling menggunakan accidental sampling. Kriteria inklusi adalah pasien baru, usia > 18 tahun, bersedia berpartisipasi dalam penelitian, dan dapat berkomunikasi dengan baik. Informasi mengenai asupan zat gizi diperoleh dengan menggunakan kuesioner semi quantitative food frequency untuk satu bulan yang lalu, aktivitas fisik didapatkan dengan kuesioner aktivitas fisik selama satu minggu yang lalu. Seluruh pertanyaan ditanyakan bersamaan dengan pemeriksaan tekanan darah. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square dan regresi logistik. Hasil. 84 persen kasus mempunyai aktivitas fisik kurang dibandingkan dengan 52 persen pada subyek non hipertensi. Kedua kelompok tersebut berbeda dalam asupan natrium dan kalium, yaitu sebanyak 84 persen subyek hipertensi mempunyai asupan natrium lebih, dan 52 persen subyek non hipertensi mempunyai asupan natrium sedang. Kesimpulan. Asupan natrium tinggi dapat meningkatkan resiko tekanan darah tinggi (p=0.016; OR=5.7; CI 95% 1,51-21.42). Rasio kalium natrium kurang dapat meningkatkan resiko tekanan darah tinggi (p=0.025; OR=5.8; CI 95% 1,36-24.33). Aktivitas fisik kurang dapat meningkatkan tekanan darah tinggi (p=0.032; OR=4.9; CI 95% 1.29-18.26). Hasil uji regresi logistik menunjukkan aktivitas fisik kurang, paling berisiko terhadap tekanan darah (p=0.035; OR=4.7; CI 95% 1,12-19.67).

Kata kunci: aktivitas fisik, asupan, hipertensi, kalium, natrium


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Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Micronutrient, p-ISSN: 2086-5198, e-ISSN: 2354-8746) is published by Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (Balai Litbang GAKI), Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

Kapling Jayan, Kec. Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang

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