Ika Puspita Asturiningtyas, Suryati Kumorowulan


Background. Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis important for growth and development. An Epidemiological study is important to describe who the case were, area mostly affected and trends of disease over time. Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with thyroid dysfunction. Method. This is a descriptive study. Data taken from medical record of 291 patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism diagnoses from Klinik Litbang GAKI Magelang in 2011-2012. Medical records used were the one that recorded age and gender, address and time of diagnose. The differences characteristic comparation of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were analyzed using Chi Square. Results. Result found that hypothyroidism affected younger (<20 years) patients while hyperthyroidism affected older (20-39 years), p=0.00. Women suffered thyroid dysfunction more than men with 58.8% hypothyroidism and 88.35% hyperthyroidism, p=0.00. Patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism came from areas with history of mild endemic area (p=0.247). The trend showed that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase from 2011 to 2012, although not statistically significant (p=0.194). Conclusion. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in female. Hyperthyroidism affected older age group compare to hypothyroidism. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism more prevalent on patient came from areas with history of mild endemic and showed increasing trend.


epidemiology, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, iodine, thyroid


Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS. Iodine-deficiency Disorders. Lancet. 2008;372:1251-1262.

Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional. Rencana Aksi Nasional Kesinambungan Program Penanggu-

langan GAKY. Jakarta: Bappenas; 2004.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2013. Laporan Penelitian. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan RI; 2013.53

Greenspan FS and Gardner DG. Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. New York : Mc.Graw-Hill, 2004.

Hetzel BS. An Overview of the Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. New York : Elsevier Science Publisher; 2005.

Lameson JL, Weetman AP. In J Larry Jameson, Harrison’s Endocrinology second edition halaman 62. US : Mc Graw Hill Companies; 2010.

Burrow GN, Oppenheimer JH, Volpe R. Thyroid Function and Disease. USA : WB Saunders Company; 1989.

Balai Litbang GAKI. Profil Klinik Litbang GAKI. Magelang : Balai Litbang GAKI; 2014

Murti B. Pengantar Epidemiologi, diun¬duh dari http://jen.fk.uns.ac.id, tanggal 5 Desember 2012.

McGrogan A, Seaman HE, Wright JW, de Vries CS. The Incidence Of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: A Systematic Review Of The Literature. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69(5):687-96.

Asturiningtyas, IP. Karakteristik Pe-ngunjung Klinik BP2GAKI Magelang Tahun 2000-2012. Laporan Penelitian. Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2013.

Flynn RWV, Donald TMM, Morris AD, Jung RT, Leese GP. The Thyroid Epidemiology, Audit, and Research Study: Thyroid Dysfunction in the General Population. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004;89(8):3879-3884.

Vanderpump MPJ. The Epidemiology of Thyroid Disease. British Medical Bulletin. 2011;99:39–51.

Reinwein D, Benker G, Konig MP, Pinchera A, Schatz H, Schleusener A. The Different Types Of Hyperthyroidism In Europe : Results Of A Prospective Study Of 924 Patients. J Endocrinology Invest. 1988;11:193-200.

Carvalho GA, Perez CLS, Wars LS. The Clinical Use of Thyroid Function Tests. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2013;57(3):193-204.

Unnikrishnan AG, Menon UV. Thyroid Disorders In India: An Epidemiological Perspective. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2011;15:78-81.

Bose A, Sharma N, Hemvani N, Chitnis DS. A Hospital Based Prevalence Study on Thyroid Disorders in Malwa Region of Central India, Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 2015;4(6):604-611.

Unnikrishnan AG, Kalra S, Sahay RK, Bantwal G, John M, Tewari N. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Adults: An Epidemiological Study In Eight Cities of India. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2013;17:647-52.

Madariaga AG, Palacios SS, Grima FG, Galofré AG. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Europe: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(3):923–931.

Cooper, David S. Hashimoto’s Dise-ase. USA : Department of Health and Human Services,2010.

Hansen PS, Brix TH, Iachine I, Kyvik KO, Hegedüs L. The Relative Importance of Genetic and Environmental Effects for The Early Stages of Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Study of Healthy Danish Twins. Eur. J. Endocrinol; 2006;154(1):29–38.

Masjhur JS. Yodium dan Respons Autoimun. Jurnal GAKY Indonesia. 2002;1(1):29-33.

Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Trofimiuk M, Bałdys-Waligórska A, Szybiński Z, Huszno B. Increased Prevalence of Hyperthyroidism As An Early and Transient Side- Effect of Implementing Iodine Prophylaxis. Public Health Nutrition. 2007;10(8),799-802.

Teng X, Shan Z, Chen Y, Lai Y, Yu J, Shan L, et al. More than Adequate Iodine Intake May Increase Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroiditis: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on Two Chinese Communities with Different Iodine Intake Levels. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2011;164: 943–950.

Leese GP, Flynn RV, Jung RT, Macdonald TM, Murphy MJ, Morris AD. Increasing Prevalence and Incidence of Thyroid Disease in Tayside, Scotland: the Thyroid Epidemiology Audit and Research Study (TEARS). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68(2):311- 316.

Nordling MA, Torring O, Lantz M, Hallengren B, Ohrling H, Lundell G. Incidence of Hyperthyroidism In Stockholm, Sweden, 2003–2005. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2008;158:823–827.

Laurberg P, Pedersen B, Knudsen N, Ovesen L, Andersen S. Environmental Iodine Intake Affects the Type of Nonmalignant Thyroid Disease. Thyroid. 2001;11(5) :457-469.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Micronutrient, p-ISSN: 2086-5198, e-ISSN: 2354-8746) is published by Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (Balai Litbang GAKI), Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

Kapling Jayan, Kec. Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang


Visitor Number:

shopify analytics ecommerce
View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.