Implementasi Pelayanan Neonatal Emergensi Komprehensif di Rumahsakit PONEK di Indonesia

Harimat Herdarwan, Lukman Waris, Tri Siswati

Abstract


Angka kematian neonatal dan angka kematian balita di Indonesia masih tinggi. Kasus kegawatdaruratan merupakan penyebab tingginya angka kematian tersebut. Rumahsakit Pelayanan Obstetrik dan Neonatal Emergensi Komprehensif (PONEK) 24 jam merupakan rumahsakit rujukan dengan visi mempercepat penurunan angka kematian neonatus dan angka kematian balita. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui implementasi pelayanan neonatal emergensi pada rumahsakit PONEK 24 jamdiIndonesia.Penelitian didesain dengan  pendekatan mixmethod yaitu pembauran antara studi kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Studi kuantitatif adalah cross sectional dan studi kualitatif adalah Rapid Assesment Procedure yang dilakukan pada tahun 2014. Penelitian dilakukan di rumahsakit di Indonesia dengan kriteria rumahsakit PONEK 24 jam, telah menerima sosialisasi tentang PONEK, dipilih secara random di 7 provinsi di Indonesia masing-masing 2 rumahsakit tiap provinsi. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut sebanyak 14 rumahsakit diobservasi dalam penelitian ini. Data kuantitatif yang dikumpulkan meliputi pelayanan klinis, manajemen, sarana dan prasarana, ketenagaan dan pendanaan. Data dikumpulkan dengan cara observasi, telaah dokumen dan wawancara. Data kualitatif yang dikumpulkan meliputi proses, hambatan, dan keberhasilan PONEK dengan cara indepth interview dengan informan kunci direktur rumahsakit, ketua komite medik dan dokter spesialis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar rumahsakit telah melaksanakan pelayanan neonatal emergensi 24 jam, KMC dan   aksesibilitas darah yang memadai. Pelayanan neonatal emergensi telah didukung dengan jenis tenaga profesional, komitmen direktur rumahsakit yang tinggi, MoU dengan IDI, kerjasama dengan NGO serta ruangan, sarana dan prasarana yang memadai. Keberhasilan rumahsakit PONEK 24 jam didukung oleh kesadaran masyarakat untuk memanfaatkan layanan rumahsakit. Namun di beberapa rumahsakit kurangnya tenaga terlatih, jumlah tenaga, tidak ada tim, sarana dan prasarana serta ruangan menjadi alasan rumahsakit tidak melaksanakan PONEK. Kesimpulan: beberapa rumahsakit telah melaksanakan pelayanan neonatal emergensi komprehensif 24 jam, namun masih perlu mendapat perhatian dalam hal pelatihan dan jumlah tenaga, biaya, sarana dan prasarana serta ruangan yang memadai.
Kata Kunci : neonatal, emergensi, rumahsakit, rujukan.


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Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pelayanan Kesehatan (Jounal of Health Service Research and Deveplopment, p-ISSN: 2598-8573. e-ISSN: 2599-1388) is published by Center for Health Resources and Service Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry Health of Republic of Indonesia

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